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A Demonstration Of Heat Affected Zone From Welding

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2005 Annual Conference


Portland, Oregon

Publication Date

June 12, 2005

Start Date

June 12, 2005

End Date

June 15, 2005



Conference Session

Innovative Curriculum in ET

Page Count


Page Numbers

10.33.1 - 10.33.9



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Paper Authors

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David Johnson

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Shannon Sweeney

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Richard Englund

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NOTE: The first page of text has been automatically extracted and included below in lieu of an abstract

Session 1150

A Demonstration of Heat Affected Zone from Welding

Richard Englund, Shannon Sweeney, David Johnson The Pennsylvania State University at Erie, The Behrend College


Heat effects on base metals caused by welding are often described to students in courses in manufacturing, design, or materials. An example where students may measure these effects was developed, is presented here, and is intended for programs and students who prefer to learn from concrete examples, as is typical of many engineering technology students. Description of situations where heat effects may be deleterious are provided to place this work in the context of welding operations.

Presented in this paper is a simple demonstration of heat effects from welding, using commonly available materials and equipment, which allows students to measure changes in material properties. Significant changes in material properties have been achieved by butt welding two socket-head cap screws end to end, then measuring Rockwell hardness values incrementally from the weld out to the ends of the part. Sample preparation, welding, and measurements for this demonstration could easily be assigned to students in its entirety.

An approximate finite element analysis of the heat applied during welding of the demonstration part, and the material changes that should be expected as a result of the welding operation are included. This demonstration combines several elements of the desired accreditation criteria program outcomes, drawing upon and extending student knowledge of manufacturing processes, materials, and thermal sciences. Possible extensions to this demonstration are also presented.


Heat effects on base metals caused by welding are often described to students in abstract or theoretical terms. These descriptions are offered in courses in manufacturing, design, or materials, but typically students do not have opportunity to measure these effects. A theoretical presentation is contrary to the concrete example learning style of many engineering technology students. Since they have not seen or measured any changes, students sometimes believe that welding is a simple process that does not change the material properties. If they have a chance to try welding in a laboratory setting it may reinforce this belief when inexpensive materials are used that do not change properties very much due to the welding process.

Particularly on heat treated parts, heating during the welding process can cause grain growth in the volume of material adjacent to the weld. This grain growth and any other tempering effects

Proceedings of the 2005 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition Copyright © 2005, American Society for Engineering Education

Johnson, D., & Sweeney, S., & Englund, R. (2005, June), A Demonstration Of Heat Affected Zone From Welding Paper presented at 2005 Annual Conference, Portland, Oregon. 10.18260/1-2--14232

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