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A Hardware-in-the-loop Experimental Platform for Power Grid Security

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Conference

2018 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition

Location

Salt Lake City, Utah

Publication Date

June 23, 2018

Start Date

June 23, 2018

End Date

July 27, 2018

Conference Session

Energy Conversion and Conservation Division Technical Session on Energy Efficiency and Power Grid Security

Tagged Division

Energy Conversion and Conservation

Page Count

17

Permanent URL

https://peer.asee.org/29689

Download Count

14

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Paper Authors

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James Dylan Kollmer

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James Kollmer is currently a second year master’s student in Electrical and Computer Engineering at Temple University. His research is focused on networked control systems and more specifically, Smart Grid resiliency and protection schemes via control theory applications. He is particularly interested in power systems, power electronics, and resilience control applications. Before coming to Temple University, he graduated from East Stroudsburg University and Temple University with a bachelor’s in physics and Electrical engineering. He is currently finishing up his Master’s thesis and works at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Philadelphia Division. He can be contacted at: james.kollmer@temple.edu

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Saroj K Biswas Temple University

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Saroj Biswas is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Temple University specializing in electrical machines and power systems, multimedia tutoring, and control and optimization of dynamic systems. He has been the principle investigator of a project for the development of an intelligent tutoring shell that allows instructors create their own web-based tutoring system. His current research focuses on security of cyber-physical systems based on multiagent framework with applications to the power grid, and the integration of an intelligent virtual laboratory environment in curriculum. He is an Associate Editor of Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization, and is a member of IEEE, ASEE, and Sigma Xi.

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Li Bai Temple University

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Dr. Li Bai is a Professor in the ECE department, Temple University. He received his B.S. (1996) from Temple University, M.S. (1998) and Ph.D. (2001) from Drexel University, all in Electrical Engineering. He was a summer research faculty in AFRL, Rome, NY, during 2002–2004 and the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division (NSWCCD), Philadelphia, PA, during 2006–2007. His research interests include video tracking, level 2+ information fusion, array signal processing and multi-agent systems, wireless sensor network and dependable secure computing. His research has been supported by Office of Naval Research, Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Commerce’s Economic Development Administration (EDA), National Science Foundation, U.S. Army and Exxon Mobil, etc. Also, Dr. Bai served as the Chair of the IEEE Philadelphia Section in 2007 and was Young Engineer of the Year in Delaware Valley, IEEE Philadelphia Section in 2004.

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Arif I. Sarwat Florida International University

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Arif I. Sarwat (M’08) received his M.S. degree in electrical and computer engineering from University of Florida, Gainesville. In 2010 Dr. Sarwat received his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the University of South Florida. He worked in the industry (SIEMENS) for nine years executing many critical projects. Currently, he is an Associate Professor at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Florida International University (FIU), where he leads the Energy, Power and Stainability (EPS) group. His significant work in energy storage, microgrid and DSM is demonstrated by Sustainable Electric Energy Delivery Systems in Florida. His research areas are smart grids, Electric Vehicles, high penetration renewable systems, cyber-physical systems, power system reliability, large scale distributed generation integration, large scale data analysis, cyber security, and vehicular technology. Dr. Sarwat is the recipient of the NSF CAREER award in 2015.

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Walid Saad Virginia Tech Orcid 16x16 orcid.org/0000-0003-2247-2458

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Walid Saad received his Ph.D degree from the University of Oslo in 2010. Currently, he is an Associate Professor at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech, where he leads the Network Science, Wireless, and Security (NetSciWiS) laboratory, within the Wireless@VT research group. His research interests include wireless networks, machine learning, game theory, cybersecurity, unmanned aerial vehicles, and cyber-physical systems. Dr. Saad is the recipient of the NSF CAREER award in 2013, the AFOSR summer faculty fellowship in 2014, and the Young Investigator Award from the Office of Naval Research (ONR) in 2015. He was the author/co-author of six conference best paper awards at WiOpt in 2009, ICIMP in 2010, IEEE WCNC in 2012, IEEE PIMRC in 2015, IEEE SmartGridComm in 2015, and EuCNC in 2017. He is the recipient of the 2015 Fred W. Ellersick Prize from the IEEE Communications Society and of the 2017 IEEE ComSoc Best Young Professional in Academia award. From 2015-2017, Dr. Saad was named the Stephen O. Lane Junior Faculty Fellow at Virginia Tech and, in 2017, he was named College of Engineering Faculty Fellow. He currently serves as an editor for the IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, IEEE Transactions on Communications, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, and IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security.

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Abstract

This paper presents the development of a hardware-in-the-loop testbed for a three-bus power grid interfaced with a simulated networked control system (NCS) for studying cyber security threats and their possible impacts on the power grid. The three-bus grid consists of two generator buses, configured as slack bus (constant voltage and angle) and PV bus (constant power and constant voltage), and a load bus (PQ bus). The synchronous generators are driven by dynamometers serving as prime movers, and the field circuits controlled by insulated gate bipolar junction transistor (IGBT) DC/DC choppers. The load bus operates switchable resistors, capacitors, and inductors that are connected to the generator buses through transmission lines. The simulated NCS is implemented on an Opal real-time (Opal-RT) platform, which is a PC/FPGA based real-time simulator that can integrate hardware with software simulations, commonly referred to as hardware-in-the-loop (HIL). In general, HIL setups have the advantage that physical elements under test interact in real time with a simulated model of a large scale system and provide a better insight of performance of both the physical system and the controller. In this HIL experiment, the data acquisition unit (DAQ), and the controller are both implemented on the Opal-RT platform. The controller determines the duty cycle of the pulse width modulated (PWM) signals applied to the gate of the IGBT which controls the voltage applied the generator field circuits, thus producing desired terminal voltages of the generators. Experimental results are presented that show the effects of cyber-attacks on a generator control system. A baseline for the behavior of the three-bus system is first established by operating the generator under various load conditions for which the controller maintains the desired terminal voltage. Then, a series of denial-of-service (DoS) attacks in the feedback loop were launched. With no attack prevention mechanism in place, the developed experimental platform provides a facility to observe and evaluate the impacts of various cyber-attacks on a real physical microgrid. The developed HIL platform allows students to experiment with various cyberattack scenarios, defense strategies, and control algorithms due to the reconfigurable nature of the HIL system.

Kollmer, J. D., & Biswas, S. K., & Bai, L., & Sarwat, A. I., & Saad, W. (2018, June), A Hardware-in-the-loop Experimental Platform for Power Grid Security Paper presented at 2018 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition , Salt Lake City, Utah. https://peer.asee.org/29689

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