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An Evaluation On The Use Of Ultra Low Flow Toilets In Four Developing Counties As A Means To Contribute To Water Resource Sustainability

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2003 Annual Conference


Nashville, Tennessee

Publication Date

June 22, 2003

Start Date

June 22, 2003

End Date

June 25, 2003



Conference Session

Global Engineering in an Interconnected World

Page Count


Page Numbers

8.195.1 - 8.195.10



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Paper Authors

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Saeed Foroudastan

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NOTE: The first page of text has been automatically extracted and included below in lieu of an abstract

Session 2360

An Evaluation on the Use of Ultra Low-Flow Toilets In Four Developing Countries as a Means to Contribute to Water Resource Sustainability

Saeed D. Foroudastan. Ph.D., Associate Professor Monette Rebecca, Graduate Assistant

Engineering Technology and Industrial Studies Department Middle Tennessee State University


This paper is an investigation into the use of water-saving toilets by developing countries to clarify whether their application can help promote water resource sustainability. To begin this evaluation, theoretical data collection is made of toilet water-use prior to and after the hypothetical installation of these conserving toilets to determine quantitative statistics between each chosen country in the analysis of water conserved. By determining each country’s theoretical percent of water usage savings and comparing these results between the various countries, an evaluation as to the affect these ultra low-flow toilets (ULF) have on water conservation is made. Secondly, an evaluation from this data is made on the impact each country had on water usage and therefore the percentage of savings it contributed towards water conservation. Lastly, a comparison between each country was theoretically presented to infer individually and collectively the contribution possible towards global water resource sustainability.

Australia was chosen to be in this evaluation because it is a country experiencing severe drought conditions and one which could benefit profoundly due to its’ inherent environment. The United States was chosen because of their enormous water usage and ensuing, diminishing supply. The remaining countries, Canada and the United Kingdom, were chosen randomly of data available between the remaining developed countries with a high percentage of domestic water usage.

The research that supports ULF toilets as a feasible means to conserve water and therefore have more water available for delivery is supported by studies, yet there is still controversy over the efficient design of these toilets and the 1992 U.S. Energy and Conservation Act mandated for ULF toilets to be installed.1 This paper addresses the validity of this opposition as well as evaluates the contribution toilets could make towards water resource sustainability, especially when the engineering design is adequate. The purpose of this paper is to confirm a need for engineering education and industry to address this issue jointly and how their involvement could contribute towards global water resource sustainability and world peace.

“Proceedings of the 2003 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition Copyright © 2003, American Society for Engineering Education”

Foroudastan, S. (2003, June), An Evaluation On The Use Of Ultra Low Flow Toilets In Four Developing Counties As A Means To Contribute To Water Resource Sustainability Paper presented at 2003 Annual Conference, Nashville, Tennessee. 10.18260/1-2--11808

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