July 26, 2021
July 26, 2021
July 19, 2022
Computers in Education
A close examination of Human-Artificial Intelligence (H-AI) research and application shows that there is a wide gap between expectations and implementation outcomes arising from several factors, most importantly the assumptions and guiding principles that creators have about users on one hand, and those of users on the other. In this paper, a review of literature - publications and intellectual property - from the first (1970s) and last (2010s) decades of the past half century was conducted to explore and highlight the driving factors on artificial intelligence (AI) research and application, the resulting implementation, and corresponding response from the AI community. Initial results reveal four general paradigms guiding research and development of AI - replacing the entire human with AI; replacing some part of the human with AI; augmenting the human with AI; and finally keeping AI out of the loop. Each of these paradigms lead to vastly different conceptualization of the human interaction with AI, affecting how we learn from, with, and by AI; what we trust AI to perform; perceptions of AI among different groups; and how well we view AI’s performance relative to our assumptions and expectations. Findings from this review will help practitioners in the human-AI field in recognizing and aligning their paradigms on AI with their goals, leading to better outcomes and fulfilled expectations across the spectrum from researchers to users of AI.
Makokha, J. M. (2021, July), Artificial Intelligence Paradigms and the Future of Learning: What a Partial Review of Half a Century of AI Conceptualization Suggests Paper presented at 2021 ASEE Virtual Annual Conference Content Access, Virtual Conference. 10.18260/1-2--36700
ASEE holds the copyright on this document. It may be read by the public free of charge. Authors may archive their work on personal websites or in institutional repositories with the following citation: © 2021 American Society for Engineering Education. Other scholars may excerpt or quote from these materials with the same citation. When excerpting or quoting from Conference Proceedings, authors should, in addition to noting the ASEE copyright, list all the original authors and their institutions and name the host city of the conference. - Last updated April 1, 2015