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Board 49: Making the Case for Temporary Structures as a Required Course and Recommending an Instructional Design

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2018 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition


Salt Lake City, Utah

Publication Date

June 23, 2018

Start Date

June 23, 2018

End Date

July 27, 2018

Conference Session

Civil Engineering Division Poster Session

Tagged Division

Civil Engineering

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Paper Authors


George Okere Washington State University Orcid 16x16

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George is an assistant professor in the construction management program in the School of Design and Construction at Washington State University (WSU). Before joining WSU he worked for Kiewit Corporation on various heavy civil projects. He received his PhD in Technology Management from Indiana State University with specialization in Construction Management. His research focus is in the area of contract administration on state DOT projects.

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Chris Souder M.S. California State University, Chico

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Chris Souder graduated with an undergraduate degree in Construction Management in 1988 before going to work for Kiewit Pacific Co. in Northern California. Chris had a successful sixteen year career with Kiewit and was involved with many projects in the heavy civil arena. Chris held positions from field engineer to Project Manager to Lead Estimator. Some of the projects Chris was involved with were the Woodland WWTP expansion in Woodland, CA, Highway 85 Bridge construction for Cal Trans in San Jose, CA, WWTP Expansion and new facilities for the City of Roseville at their Booth Rd. and Pleasant Grove Plants, Highway 101 Retrofit work for Cal Trans in San Francisco, CA, new Highway 880 construction of Bridge Structures for Cal Trans in Oakland, CA following the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, Water storage facilities for the City of Sacramento, new Bridge and 2 miles of road construction including a pump station in Oroville, CA, an expansion of the Sacramento River WTP facility for the City of Sacramento and various estimating assignments for both heavy highway and water treatment facilities throughout Northern California. These projects as a whole had total revenues in excess of $420 million.

After leaving Kiewit, Chris pursued an Interdisciplinary Masters Degree in Construction Planning at California State University, Chico while teaching full time in their Construction Management program. Today, Chris teaches Temporary Structures and Scheduling and Project Controls to 4th year students at Chico State while maintaining a continuous portfolio of consulting projects and industry trainings ranging from Cost Estimating, Temporary Structures Design and Scheduling.

More recently, Chris has been involved with the estimating, temporary structure design and scheduling of the LL Anderson Dam reconstruction at French Meadows Reservoir in Placer County, the520 Floating Bridge Phase II in Washington, the BART extension from Milpitas to San Jose, the Oakland/San Francisco Bay Bridge Demolition and the Folsom Dam Phase IV Spillway Project.

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All construction projects start from the ground up, requiring different enclosures and support systems below grade to keep away earth material and/or water. Constructing from the ground up involves access to elevated areas, requiring the use of platforms, such as scaffolding systems, to get material and labor above ground level. In addition, most construction projects involve concrete, which is the most widely used material in construction, requiring formwork and falsework systems. Also, materials such as rebar cages must be supported temporarily by guying and bracing to avoid collapsing. In some cases, existing underground facilities and appurtenances must be underpinned and supported in place to avoid damages. Additionally, on heavy civil projects requiring heavy construction equipment, there is always the need for trestles and equipment bridges used as temporary access. What is unique about these topical areas is that they fall under the subject area called temporary structures, which happens to fall outside the required curriculum of the CM (construction management) and ConE or CEM (construction engineering or construction engineering management) programs in the US. The objective of this paper is twofold. The first is to make the case for including temporary structures as a required part of the CM, ConE or CEM curriculum, and secondly, to recommend an instructional design approach for a temporary structures class. This study gathered, analyzed and synthesized literature and empirical data on the topic. Considering the failure rate of temporary structures, and the socioeconomic consequences of lack of knowledge and training in the area of temporary structures, the authors call for CM, ConE or CEM programs to re-evaluate the way they view temporary structures. Temporary structures should not be viewed as an optional course; it is an indispensable part of the construction process and should be treated as such. The significance of this research is paramount. It encourages accreditation bodies and academic programs in the area of CM, ConE or CEM to consider making temporary structures a required course. It also provides the programs with an instructional design on how to build the course content for a temporary structures course.

Okere, G., & Souder, C. (2018, June), Board 49: Making the Case for Temporary Structures as a Required Course and Recommending an Instructional Design Paper presented at 2018 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition , Salt Lake City, Utah. 10.18260/1-2--30044

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