Virtual On line
June 22, 2020
June 22, 2020
June 26, 2021
Experimentation and Laboratory-Oriented Studies
Ceramic water filters (CWF) are used in developing countries to filter water for human consumption. This undergraduate senior-project based paper presents two methods for filtration, one where the frustum filter vessel is stationary and the other method where the vessel is spun, producing solid body rotation. The two methods are compared using theoretical analysis, experiments, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The theoretical data are obtained via applications of Mathematica code and CFD simulations using ANSYS Fluent. The theoretical hydraulic models and CFD simulations were able to predict the experimental height of the water in the filter, the volumetric flow rate, and the total cumulative volume filtered. The eTape liquid level sensor by Milone Technologies connected to the National Instruments NI 9207 input module and NI cDAQ-9174 chassis were used to measure water levels in the frustum. Water temperature was measured using an OMEGA thermocouple probe connected to the NI 9212 thermocouple input module. A Harvard Apparatus speed controller and a Bodine gear motor was used to drive the rotating table for the water filter. It can be seen in the spinning model as compared with the stationary model that water is filtered more quickly. Therefore, a greater volume is produced over the same amount of time for the spinning filter versus the stationary one. Spin rates of 10 radians per second was found to be an optimum rotational speed for the CWF that is being used. This rotation speed produced the highest volumetric flow rate (20% increase as compared with no rotation) while still allowing for solid body rotation.
This study furthered previous classroom learning and student understanding of the methods of theoretical analysis, experimentation, and computer simulations by way of adapting the study of solid body rotation along with the concept of filtration through a ceramic water filter. Comparisons of each set of data with experimental results justified the theoretical and simulation analyses are accurately portraying the results. Overall, superimposing the ideas of solid body rotation with filtration will enhance earlier independent studies that have already been completed. Students designed an apparatus especially for measuring fluid height and rate of filtering for a spinning frustum. Students worked through challenges with applying NI LabVIEW software and hardware instrumentation and sensors including the use of Senring slip rings for transfer of signals from the rotating reference frame to automatically record fluid height and rate of filter flow at different rotation speeds.
Detailed descriptions of experimental design, fabrication, set-up and cost are included in the paper together with a tutorial on the details of the mesh generation and settings for CFD simulations. Finally, the paper will provide details of outcomes for the project, faculty observations, student involvement and response, and assessment of student work.
Huene, J. R., & Huene, M. S., & Spear, E. M., & Walblay, E. W., & Craig, H., & Matsson, J. E. (2020, June), Clay Ceramic Water Filter Performance for Stationary and Solid Body Rotation Conditions Paper presented at 2020 ASEE Virtual Annual Conference Content Access, Virtual On line . 10.18260/1-2--34287
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