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Correlation Analysis of Scaffolding Creative Problem Solving Through Question Prompts with Process and Outcomes of Project-Based Service Learning

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2013 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition


Atlanta, Georgia

Publication Date

June 23, 2013

Start Date

June 23, 2013

End Date

June 26, 2013



Conference Session

NSF Grantees' Poster Session

Tagged Topic

NSF Grantees Poster Session

Page Count


Page Numbers

23.342.1 - 23.342.21



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Paper Authors


Wei Zheng Jackson State University

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Dr. Wei Zheng is an associate professor of Civil Engineering at Jackson State University. He received his Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2001 and has over ten years of industrial experience. Since becoming a faculty member at JSU in 2005, he has made continuous efforts to integrate emerging technologies and cognitive skill development into engineering curriculum.

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Liusheng Wang Jackson State University

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Liusheng Wang is a visiting scholar at Jackson State University and an associate professor. His primary research interests are on the cognitive and social development of students.

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Jianjun Yin Jackson State University

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Dr. Jianjun Yin is a professor of Education in the Department of Elementary and Early Childhood Education at Jackson State University. His professional and research interest includes elementary and early childhood education, English as a Second Language (ESL), Multicultural Education and science education for middle school students.

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Effects of Scaffolding Creative Problem Solving Through Question Prompts in Project-Based Service LearningThis paper is intended to present the effect of scaffolding Creative Problem Solving (CPS)process through freshmen’s Project-Based Community Service Learning on students’self-regulated learning and creative problem solving skills; and to probe the contexts andconditions of question prompts as scaffolding for effectively facilitating students’ self-regulatedlearning and problem-solving process in their problem-based learning processes andproducing positive learning outcomes; and to illustrate patterns of African-American students’cognitive and metacognitve processes. The current investigation was conducted during onesemester. Student participants are freshmen who conduct their required community servicelearning during their freshmen year. Those students were assigned to the service learningproject sites, and were required to identify and define a problem that is faced by their selectedcommunity service sites and provide their innovative solution to the identified problem.Meanwhile those received the designed interventions of question prompts on self-regulatedlearning creative problem solving, which includes Metacognitive prompts, Procedural prompts,Elaboration prompts, Reflective prompts, as well as question prompts for creative strategies.The students were required to write their community service learning journals and designproject reports. Follow-up interview was conducted for selected students. The data werecollected through students’ process journals and project reports, as well as interview ofselected students.Correlation analysis of the learning outcomes and the learning processes indicates that theinnovative solution in students’ design projects has the positive correlation with the questionprompts in learning and problem solving process. This indicates question prompts can lead tothe enhancement of students’ creativity. However, the idea generation and self-monitoring inthe processes of students’ problem solving have stronger positive correlations with theinnovative solution in the students’ design project. The analysis of data from the process ofstudents’ learning and problem solving indicates that unitization of question promotes weighsless in the process than other process components, e.g. the idea generation andself-monitoring. Thus, the utilization of question prompts should be emphasized for studentsduring their learning and problem solving process.The context and conditions of question prompts are evaluated based on the interview ofstudents in three aspects: scaffolding types of question prompts, question prompts for differentphases of the problem-solving process, and question prompts for creative strategies. Certaincontext and conditions of question prompts were found to be useful for facilitating students’self-regulated learning problem-solving process. Firstly, in regarding of scaffolding types ofquestion prompts, the most efficient type were Reflective Prompts, followed by MetacognitivePrompts and Elaboration Prompts, the least used was Procedural Prompts. However, thedifference among those four types of question promotes are not of significance. Secondly, inregarding of question prompts for different phases in the process, the most used questionprompts for the phase of idea generation are found as those for Association and Search, andthe least used was Contrast. For the phase of the exploration, the most used question promptswere found as those for Knowledge Application, and the least used ones are Experimentationand Context Shifting; for the phase of the evaluation, the most used question prompts were forAnalysis and Trial, and the least used was Elimination. Thirdly, in regarding the questionprompts for the creative strategies, the most used question prompts was for AnalogicalThinking, and the least was Combinatorial Creation.The cognitive and metacognitive processes in students’ self-regulated learning and problemsolving are revealed and characterized in terms of ten components (or dimensions). Amongthe those components, the students’ process are stronger in Motivation and Interest, TimePlanning, Problem Identification and Selection of Strategies, and weaker in Creative Thinking,Utilization of Question Prompts and Seeking Help.

Zheng, W., & Wang, L., & Yin, J. (2013, June), Correlation Analysis of Scaffolding Creative Problem Solving Through Question Prompts with Process and Outcomes of Project-Based Service Learning Paper presented at 2013 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, Atlanta, Georgia. 10.18260/1-2--19356

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