Asee peer logo

Development Of Apparatus And Protocol For Testing Of Sand At High Temperatures In The Foundry

Download Paper |


2007 Annual Conference & Exposition


Honolulu, Hawaii

Publication Date

June 24, 2007

Start Date

June 24, 2007

End Date

June 27, 2007



Conference Session

Mechanical Design and Projects

Tagged Division

Engineering Technology

Page Count


Page Numbers

12.530.1 - 12.530.9



Permanent URL

Download Count


Request a correction

Paper Authors

author page

Jorge Rodriguez Western Michigan University

author page

Sam Ramrattan Western Michigan University

author page

Alamgir Choudhury Western Michigan University

author page

Pavel Ikonomov Western Michigan University

Download Paper |

NOTE: The first page of text has been automatically extracted and included below in lieu of an abstract

Development of Apparatus and Protocol for Testing of Sand at High Temperatures in the Foundry


In order to increase productivity and improve quality, the metal casting industry has realized the need for near-net shape casting. For example, in the automotive industry, power train components are designed for usage in close tolerance. One goal of the foundry engineer is to produce cores and molds of consistent dimensional accuracy, and hence a casting satisfying the tight tolerances of the automotive industry. This objective inevitably will result in improved quality and more efficient production. The developers and users of chemical binders, in hot or cold box cores or on patterns for mold, all have these issues in mind.

One of the main aspects when talking about dimensional accuracy is thermal distortion of the molds and cores. To the best of our knowledge currently there is no testing protocol to determine thermal distortion in a controlled fashion at pouring temperatures. Practitioners use data based on tests at room temperature in order to predict mold behavior at high temperatures. An apparatus and a specific methodology to measure thermal distortion have been proposed and developed by the authors, and it is reported in this paper. The proposed apparatus, now in its second generation, is simple to operate and the test specimen is a disc piece, which is already used for transverse strength testing of chemically bonded sands. The proposed protocol allows examination of thermo-mechanical properties of the specific sand-binder combination. Thermal distortion curves obtained for various sand-binder-catalyst combinations, when tested for aluminum castings, are presented.

This project was carried out over several semesters, where students in the capstone design project course sequence participated. This is a very good example of collaboration between industry and university, with benefits for both sides. The students were excited about working on a project with great potential for industrial applicability, and industry was more than willing to provide needed materials for the project to become a reality. The results obtained so far are encouraging and it is believed that the proposed methodology can be used for better process control to establish a materials control program and for dimensional control of cores and molds. The designed apparatus is another tool that would aid in identifying correct amounts of binder materials and catalysts, and for predicting the behavior of the core and mold material in thermo- mechanical application.


Even with the promises of several alternatives for sand as a medium for the production of molds and cores for the metal casting industry, close to 90% of annual cast metal production is still done with sand. Its versatility and ease of use foster rapid innovation in an industry where the ability to change quickly can mean survival. Sand has many pluses, but it is far from perfect. This is especially true of chemically bonded sand. The use of chemical binders in hot- or cold- core box or on patterns for molds, have one common goal: near-net shape castings. The goal is to

Rodriguez, J., & Ramrattan, S., & Choudhury, A., & Ikonomov, P. (2007, June), Development Of Apparatus And Protocol For Testing Of Sand At High Temperatures In The Foundry Paper presented at 2007 Annual Conference & Exposition, Honolulu, Hawaii. 10.18260/1-2--2928

ASEE holds the copyright on this document. It may be read by the public free of charge. Authors may archive their work on personal websites or in institutional repositories with the following citation: © 2007 American Society for Engineering Education. Other scholars may excerpt or quote from these materials with the same citation. When excerpting or quoting from Conference Proceedings, authors should, in addition to noting the ASEE copyright, list all the original authors and their institutions and name the host city of the conference. - Last updated April 1, 2015