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Engineering Instruction In Nondestructive Testing Of Materials (Ndt) Using The Capillary Diffusion Method.

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2008 Annual Conference & Exposition


Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Publication Date

June 22, 2008

Start Date

June 22, 2008

End Date

June 25, 2008



Conference Session

Innovations in ME Laboratory Instruction

Tagged Division

Mechanical Engineering

Page Count


Page Numbers

13.512.1 - 13.512.13



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Paper Authors


Guido Lopez Old Dominion University

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Dr Lopez is a faculty member of Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA. He is an alumnus of Northeastern University, Boston, MA. He has served in academic and administrative positions such as engineering faculty at Northeastern University, Wentworth Institute of Technology in Boston, MA, and Chair of the Engineering Math and Science Division at Daniel Webster College, Nashua, NH. He has performed applied research at the NASA John Glenn Research Center in the field of solar power generation for the international space station alpha. He is a technical consultant in areas of power generation, and non destructive testing and evaluation of materials.

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Ilya Leipunsky Russian Academy of Science

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Dr. Leipunsky is a Leading Senior staff scientist at the Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of the Russian academy of Science, Moscow, Russia. He was a scientist member of the Russian Space Program for 14 years (1976 – 1990). His current research focuses on surface chemistry, nanotechnology, and NDT and NDE.

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Nadezda Berezkina Russian Academy of Sciences

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Dr. Nadezda Berezkina is a Senior staff scientist at the Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INEP CP RAS), Moscow Russia. She participated as staff scientist in the Russian Space Program during the development of the Russian Space Orbiter "Buran" between 1985 and 1990. She is inventor of specialized indicator materials for penetrant inspection methods of surface defects. She currently performs theoretical and applied research in areas of material science and nondestructive testing and evaluation of materials and energy equipment.

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NOTE: The first page of text has been automatically extracted and included below in lieu of an abstract



In a great majority of educational cases, “testing of materials” in the laboratory implies “destructive” techniques consisting of using universal testing machines (UTMs), where materials are brought to a “failure condition” under tension, compression, shear, bending or torsion. Common objectives associated with these types of tests are: the evaluation of materials moduli of elasticity and rigidity, yield strength, strain, ultimate strength, etc. In engineering practice, however, “in-situ” nondestructive testing (NDT) of materials are highly preferable, in order to evaluate rapidly the condition, failure potential, usefulness and serviceability of engineering materials. Thus, nondestructive testing of materials ought to be an essential ingredient of engineering education and training, since it plays a significant role in design, manufacturing and evaluation of engineering equipment. This paper presents an inexpensive, simple and effective method to convey to engineering students the underlying principles of NDT, based on an innovative technique referred to as Capillary Diffusion Method (CDM), which is classified within the category of non-destructive Penetrant Testing (PT). CDM is relatively unknown in the United States, but, it has been used for several years in the former Soviet Union, and more recently, in the Russian Federation. CDM proves to be quite versatile and considerably faster than conventional PT techniques used in the U.S. In this paper, the underlying science behind the CDM technique is discussed in detail, as well as, the academic benefits and educational potential derived from the inclusion of CDM in engineering academic curriculum. Mathematical, graphical and numerical documentation are presented in order to substantiate the suitability of CDM as an educational tool to teach Nondestructive Testing in engineering programs such as: Mechanical engineering, Chemical engineering, Civil engineering, Aeronautical, Aerospace engineering, Power Plant Engineering, and Nuclear engineering.


Nondestructive testing and evaluation of materials is an ancient practice. Early metalworkers, for example, report the use of “visual” or “sonic” techniques to determine the quality and usefulness of their products. Today, Nondestructive Testing (NDT) and Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) are methods of considerable importance to inspect and determine the integrity of engineering materials, equipment and systems. Several engineering techniques have been and continue to be developed for accurate NDT and NDE of materials. Examples of these techniques in engineering applications include: X-rays, Thermography, Ultrasound, Eddy Current, Magnetic Particle, and Penetrant Testing 6,8,12.

Materials Testing is quite likely to be part of engineering lab curricula and training, particularly, in fields such as, Civil, Structural, Mechanical, Power Plant, Nuclear, Aeronautical and Aerospace. Often, however, testing of engineering materials in the laboratory involves “destructive” procedures where standard specimens are brought to the “failure condition” or to the “breaking point”. Familiar destructive tests include tensile, compressive, shear, torsion and fatigue. The most common educational objective from these types of tests is the quantification

Lopez, G., & Leipunsky, I., & Berezkina, N. (2008, June), Engineering Instruction In Nondestructive Testing Of Materials (Ndt) Using The Capillary Diffusion Method. Paper presented at 2008 Annual Conference & Exposition, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 10.18260/1-2--3626

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