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Engineering Pedagogy Scale (EPS): Preliminary Development of an Observational Instrument to Detect Elementary Teachers’ Level of Engineering-Pedagogical Content Knowledge (E-PCK) (Fundamental)

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2021 ASEE Virtual Annual Conference Content Access


Virtual Conference

Publication Date

July 26, 2021

Start Date

July 26, 2021

End Date

July 19, 2022

Conference Session

Pre-College Engineering Education Division Technical Session 8

Tagged Division

Pre-College Engineering Education

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Paper Authors


Ibrahim H. Yeter National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University Orcid 16x16

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Ibrahim H. Yeter, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the National Institute of Education (NIE) at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in Singapore. Before joining NIE/NTU, he was appointed as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences at Harvard University and the School of Engineering Education in the College of Engineering at Purdue University in 2019-2020 and 2017-2019, respectively.
He is an affiliated faculty member of the Centre for Research and Development in Learning (CRADLE) at NTU and is the director of the World MOON (More Observation Of Nature) Project, which has enabled several thousand students and their teachers worldwide to collaborate on aerospace engineering and STEM education-focused activities.
He received national and international recognitions including an Early Career Researcher award from European Science Education Research Association (ESERA) and a Jhumki Basu Scholar award from National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST). Also, he is one of two scholarship recipients awarded by NARST to attend the ESERA summer research program in České Budějovice, Czech Republic in 2016.
His current research focuses on Computational Thinking/Pedagogy, Engineering Education/Psychology, Artificial Intelligence in Education, Machine Learning Education, Learning Analytics, and Assessment.

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This preliminary study proposes the Engineering Pedagogy Scale (EPS), a means of measuring PCK characteristics that may be important for effective engineering instruction. The EPS aims to be used for the evaluation, description, and categorization of the domains and indicators that represent the practices that an ideal teacher exhibits while teaching engineering practices in elementary classrooms. Throughout this project, existing instruments were investigated thoroughly, however, and none were suitable for the engineering context. This study exploring and developing relevant initial indicators is part of a series of studies; subsequent studies will provide specific indicators for each domain and describe field testing and analysis of the EPS. After iteratively designed discussions throughout the project, the preliminary findings indicated that the proposed observational instrument resulted in seven distinctive main domains. These domains included (1) unit-specific content knowledge, (2) engineering design process (EDP), (3) productive failure and success, (4) interdisciplinary applications, (5) questioning, (6) teamwork, and finally (7) discussion, feedback, and reflection. This study has both theoretical and practical implications. Theoretically, the study will contribute to the engineering education literature by extending the concept of PCK (Shulman, 1986) to the engineering education field and its theoretical viability in the elementary school setting. Practically, it is paramount that administrators, professional developers, curriculum specialists, and teachers come to understand what skills, pedagogies, and practices are needed to facilitate the successful implementation and improvement of engineering instruction. As such, a standard instrument that evaluates teachers’ E-PCK would help to identify where improvement is needed.

Yeter, I. H. (2021, July), Engineering Pedagogy Scale (EPS): Preliminary Development of an Observational Instrument to Detect Elementary Teachers’ Level of Engineering-Pedagogical Content Knowledge (E-PCK) (Fundamental) Paper presented at 2021 ASEE Virtual Annual Conference Content Access, Virtual Conference. 10.18260/1-2--37070

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