June 24, 2017
June 24, 2017
June 28, 2017
Pre-College Engineering Education Division
TPACK (technological-pedagogical-content knowledge) is a conceptual framework that reflects the status of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge of educators. The TPACK framework allows teachers to use technology as an effective pedagogical tool to present disciplinary knowledge in readily accessible ways to students, promote active learning, and assist students in comprehending content that is pedagogically challenging. Recent proliferation of robotics as a technology component to facilitate effective pedagogy requires further investigation into TPACK because the teachers not only need to know how to operate robotics under TPACK, but also to incorporate it into teaching their assigned curriculum. Furthermore, situated cognition theory can help guide the development of robotics-focused TPACK, which is dynamic in nature and various factors and contexts may affect its efficacy. However, prior research has not devoted significant effort to explore the dynamic nature of TPACK for teaching STEM in robotics-focused classrooms.
In this paper, we explore the dynamic nature of TPACK for teaching STEM with robotics in middle school classrooms. We collaborate with 20 teachers in eight urban, inner-city schools and observe their teaching of robotics-focused STEM lessons under TPACK. Using questionnaires, we identify the ideal requirements of teachers' TPACK to effectively teach STEM lessons using robotics. We also determine the relative importance of the various domains of TPACK. Next, using questionnaires and brainstorming, we identify the factors that may affect the requirements of the technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge and their relative importance. We investigate different strategies and awareness levels of TPACK in different schools. We develop an assessment method to assess the self-efficacy of the teachers to teach robotics-focused STEM lessons under TPACK. We analyze the reasons behind the deficits in the self-efficacy scores and provide recommendations to improve TPACK self-efficacy of the teachers.
The results are novel and fundamental that may contribute to expand the conceptual horizon of TPACK, develop and maintain a balanced TPACK for teaching STEM with robotics in middle schools, and also maintain appropriate self-efficacy levels of the teachers, which may enhance the overall learning outcomes of the students.
Rahman, S. M. M., & Jayasree Krishnan, V., & Kapila, V. (2017, June), Exploring the Dynamic Nature of TPACK Framework in Teaching STEM Using Robotics in Middle School Classrooms Paper presented at 2017 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, Columbus, Ohio. https://peer.asee.org/28336
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