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Impact Of 4 D Visualization On The Cognitive Process Of Detecting The Logical Errors In The Construction Schedule

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2003 Annual Conference


Nashville, Tennessee

Publication Date

June 22, 2003

Start Date

June 22, 2003

End Date

June 25, 2003



Conference Session

Construction Engineering Advances I

Page Count


Page Numbers

8.652.1 - 8.652.10



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Paper Authors

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Julian Kang

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Byeong-Cheol Lho

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NOTE: The first page of text has been automatically extracted and included below in lieu of an abstract

Session 1121

Impact of 4D Visualization on the Cognitive Process of Detecting the Logical Errors in the Construction Schedule

Julian H. Kang* and Byeong-Cheol Lho** *Texas A&M University / **Sangji University


In order to understand the construction schedule, students have to read drawings, visualize the structures in mind, and link these structures with the schedule information depicted in the bar chart or CPM network. Since this is not a simple process, students studying construction scheduling sometimes hardly integrate the bar chart and the two-dimensional (2D) drawings to visualize the construction sequence in their mind. Four-dimensional (4D) visualization, which shows visually the sequence of building the structures over time using three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics, is expected to be one of the innovative methods that improve our cognitive process of understanding the construction schedule. This paper introduces an experiment to test whether the students would better understand the construction schedule if 4D visualization is provided. For this experiment, students studying construction management at Texas A&M University were recruited and then asked to detect logical errors in the construction schedule using different levels of graphical representation. One group conducted the experiment using 4D visualization of the construction sequence, and the other group used 3D model of the constructed structure. For the experiment, an Internet instrument was developed to provide graphical representation of the construction schedule and measure the elapsed time for the students to detect logical errors in the schedule. The experiment showed that students who used 4D visualization detected more logic errors within less time than those who used 3D visualization.

I. Introduction

Construction planning requires reading the drawings, visualizing the constructed structures in mind, breaking the structures into identifiable components, and building a logical network among these components. Once the duration required for constructing each component is estimated, the computer application can identify the critical path in the network and calculate the total duration of the project using Critical Path Method (CPM). The construction schedule is then conceptually illustrated using the bar chart. The conceptual expression of the schedule has been considered effective for illustrating the entire construction schedule. However, it may take many years to develop a skill for understanding the complicated construction sequence and detecting any logical errors hidden in the construction schedule if the construction schedule is depicted using the bar chart. Undetected logical errors in the schedule could delay the entire construction project. Project engineers try to proactively detect any logical errors hidden in the construction schedule

Proceedings of the 2003 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition Copyright © 2003, American Society for Engineering Education

Kang, J., & Lho, B. (2003, June), Impact Of 4 D Visualization On The Cognitive Process Of Detecting The Logical Errors In The Construction Schedule Paper presented at 2003 Annual Conference, Nashville, Tennessee. 10.18260/1-2--12032

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