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Invited Paper - Engineering for the Americas (EftA)

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Conference

2013 ASEE International Forum

Location

Atlanta, Georgia

Publication Date

June 22, 2013

Start Date

June 22, 2013

End Date

June 22, 2013

Conference Session

Track 3 - Session I - Faculty Development

Tagged Topic

Invited - Faculty Development

Page Count

23

Page Numbers

21.40.1 - 21.40.23

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https://peer.asee.org/17245

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37

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Paper Authors

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Reginald Vachon P.E. American Society of Mechanical Engineers

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Dr. Vachon , an engineer with a physics background and business executive, has served in the US Army and was a chaired professor of mechanical engineering. He received his education at the US Naval Academy, Auburn University, Oklahoma State University and Jones Law School. He was the Chair of the American Association of Engineering Societies and is Vice President for North America for Pan American Union of Engineering Organizations (UPADI). He serves on the WFEO committee on relations with the UN. Dr. Vachon has authored over 150 papers, numerous technical reports and presented papers internationally. He is a member of the Pan American Academy of Engineering and the International Nuclear Energy Academy. He served on the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee for seven years. He has served as the advisor to the President of the World Federation of Engineering Organizations. Recently he was on the AIAA Structures Committee of Standards that developed Standard, S –1110-2005 Space Systems-Structures, Structural Components , and Structural Assemblies. He is an original patentee for digital image correlation and co-holds a number of other patents encompassing the DMI optical strain technology. He served as President of the American Society of Mechanical Engineering. He is a licensed attorney and admitted to practice before the US Supreme Court. He has international project experience in Venezuela, Honduras, Nicaragua, Brazil, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Iran, Egypt, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Cameroon and Belize, He has conducted research and development projects with the US Army, US Navy. NASA ,DoD, EPA, ERDA (predecessor to DOE), DOE, NSF and other agencies, as well as with industrial clients such as IBM, Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, Polish Air Force Institute of Technology, RUAG, Halliburton and others. He was the president of the engineering firm that was the Resident Engineer and Constructor for the DOE Strategic Petroleum Reserve. He conducted an NSF Chautauqua series on solar energy design. His research areas cover bioengineering, energy, mechanics, hypersonic aerodynamics, space power and systems engineering He is a Honorary Member ASME, Fellow IMehE, Fellow ASCE, Life Member ASEE, Assoc. Fellow AIAA , Fellow NSPE, Member IEEE . Fellow Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, Fellow Institution of Engineers Singapore, member Sigma Xi and Phi Kappa Phi. He is a registered engineer in several states and a licensed European Engineer through FEANI.

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Robert O. Warrington Jr. Michigan Technological University

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Robert O. Warrington is currently Director of the Institute for Leadership and Innovation, which houses the highly interdisciplinary and innovative Enterprise program, the High School Enterprise program and the Pavlis Institute for Global Technological Leadership at Michigan Technological University. Dr. Warrington was Dean of the College of Engineering from 1996 to 2007 and was the founder and Director of the Institute for Micromanufacturing at Louisiana Tech University. Before joining Michigan Tech in 1996, he received his BS degree in Aerospace Engineering from Virginia Polytechnic Institute, his MS in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Texas at El Paso and his PhD in Mechanical Engineering from Montana State University. Dr. Warrington served in the US Army for two years and on the faculty at Montana State University for eight years. He was the head of the Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department at Louisiana Tech University for 11 years, and was the Director of the Institute for Micromanufacturing from 1991-1996. Dr. Warrington was a founding advisory board member for the ASME Nanotechnology Institute. He is past VP for Education, Centers Sector of ASME. He currently leads the Vision 2030 study for the future of mechanical engineering education. He was a member of the Board of Directors for ABET after serving a number of years as a program evaluator, member of the Engineering Accreditation Council and the Executive Committee of the EAC. Dr. Warrington is chair of the Education Committee for the Pan American Federation of Engineering Societies (UPADI). Dr. Warrington is a Fellow of ASME and AAAS and is a member of the Pan American Academy of Engineering. He was an associate editor (now emeritus) for the ASME/IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems and has over 150 technical publications and numerous presentations (35 invited), and 49 research grants from foundations, government and industry. Dr. Warrington is the founder of the Commercialization of Microsystems Conferences, is a past founding president of MANCEF and currently is a member of the executive board for MANCEF. Dr. Warrington was an Associate Director for the Center for Wireless Integrated Microsystems, an NSF Engineering Research Center (2000-10). Dr. Warrington's research interests include MEMS (particularly micro heat transfer and fluid flow), micromanufacturing, energy scavenging at the microscale, and micromechanical machining processes.

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Robert D. Kersten University of Central Florida

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Dr. Robert D. Kersten, Ph.D.,P.E., D.WRE, Dist. M. ASCE

Dean and Professor Emeritus, University of Central Florida.Founding Dean UCF College of Engineering. A native of Illinois, received B.S. and M.S. degrees from Oklahoma State University, and the Ph.D. from Northwestern University. Fellow status in AAAS, ABET, NSPE, ASCE & FES. Member eight cademic
Honor Societies, named to five national Who’s Who registers. Former Chair EAC/ABET, Florida Board of Professional Engineers,
Governor Appointee to two energy task forces, former member of Mid-Florida Economic Development Commission. Industrial experience Includes Flight Safety Foundation, Exxon-Mobil, Dept. of the Interior,
and A.E. Staley Manufacturing Co. Author of over 80 papers and five books ranging over a wide variety of professional interests.
Named to many honors and awards, including ASEE Centennial Medallion, Distinguished Member of ASCE, UPADI Golden Vector,
and elected to Pan American Academy of Engineering. Currently serves on AAES Intac Committee on UPADI.

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Abstract

ENGINEERING FOR THE AMERICAS (EftA)PROLOGUEINTRODUCTION Engineering for the Americas (EftA) was initiated at the meeting of the Ministers and High Authorities ofScience and Technology of the Organization of American States meeting in Lima in November 2004. Thestated purpose of EftA is “Fostering Growth through Quality Engineering” Each subsequent meeting ofthe Ministers has emphasized EftA. This prologue provides the context for a thoughtful White Paper onEftA prepared by members of the Committee on Engineering Education of the Pan American Union of EngineeringAssociations (UPADI).FOCUS AREAS Educational Innovation: To encourage the innovation and reform of engineering education and theimplementation of new educational techniques that involve the productive sector as a key partner,motivator and collaborator in shaping educational improvements and activities that are relevant to marketneeds as well as foster a culture of life long learning. Accreditation, Quality Assurance and Mobility: To foster activities leading to an understanding to theimportance, establishment or enhancement of quality assurance, methods of accreditation, andintegration of national, regional and hemispheric systems. Job Creation: To engage with Industry to create an ongoing real world experience for students,stimulate employment through internships and coops, and drive a sustained Industry / Academiainteraction around producing appropriate outcomes.TRANSLATIONEftA’s purpose is to promote economic and social development through quality engineering education forinnovation and hemispheric collaboration in job creation is concentrated on education. Efta’s purpose istranslated into action through an Advisory Committee and the following organizations: Latin AmericanConsortium of Engineering Institutions (LACCEI), Pan American Federation of Engineering Societies(UAPDI) and Pan American Academy of Engineering (API). Dr. Jorge Duran, Chief ,Science,Technology, and Innovation Department of Economic Development Trade and tourism Organization ofAmerican States , is the focal point for EftA. LACCEI and UPADI have education committees. Both holdand participate in meetings of educators form the Americas. There is cooperation between , LACCEI,UPADI and API. In addition representatives of these organizations meet with Ministers. The most recentmeeting in Washington was held in December 2012 where the three organizations presented unifiedpresences.MINISTERS’ WORKING GROUPSThe OAS Ministers at the Panama meeting in 2011 created four working groups . The EFTA activities ineducation come under Working Group 2. Human resources training and education . This working groupis chaired by Argentina. The Ministers stated that Working Group 2 will work to help increase thenumber of female and male graduates in science, technology, engineering, and technical education, andto improve study programs in these areas to respond to the changing needs of industry, especiallyMSMEs, and communities. It will also work to: a. Enlist universities, to upgrade study programs in science, technology and engineering so as to graduate a critical mass of qualified men and women in strategic industries and fields, emphasizing multi-disciplinary approaches, strengthening private-sector linkages in line with to the social and economic situation of their countries; b. Promote the strengthening of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education in primary and secondary schools; c. Encourage opinion surveys among secondary school students on science and scientific professions. d. Define the theme and supervise the development of a case study and/or project for the sharing of best practices and experiences in the region and make recommendations to COMCYT to take action; e. Promote the continued professional development of faculty members in their fields and periodic training on the latest teaching and research methods; f. Promote the exchange of students in the Hemisphere taking into account gender equity and greater participation of minorities; g. Facilitate hemispheric cooperation mechanisms so that member states collaborate in their efforts to upgrade and maintain their science, technology, and engineering study programs; h. Facilitate information sharing pertaining to academic mobility for students and professionals among OAS member states; i. Create and/or strengthen extension services and technology transfer based on voluntary and mutually agreeable terms to the community and industry, especially MSMEs; j. Design and coordinate regional and hemispheric projects and develop academia-public- private partnerships in the above-mentioned topics, reinforcing particularly the ―Engineering for the Americas‖ hemispheric initiative, approved at the First Meeting of Ministers and High Authorities of Science and Technology and endorsed by the Second Meeting;WORKING GROUP AND RELATED MEETINGS IN 2013Working Group 2 is convening in Argentina In mid June 2013.UPADI is conducting an engineering education workshop in Medellin August 19-23 which is a follow-upto an April 2012 education meeting in Havana. .LACCEI will hold an Innovation in Engineering Technology and Education for Competiveness andProsperity in Cancun 14-16 August 2013These meetings are directed toward unifying the professionals in engineering to promote the welfare ofthe Americas through practitioners and teachers of engineering and those who prepare students to enterengineering programs.. This prologue is followed by a WHITE PAPER that discusses EftA thinking ENGINEERING FOR THE AMERICAS –WHITE PAPER (Implications for Engineering Education, Social and Economic Development)AbstractThe intense movement toward globalization of the marketplace and the internationalization ofmany human activities is widely recognized. Partnerships among many stakeholders arebecoming more and more the norm. The twin driving forces of ―free trade‖ and ―nationalexpectations‖ are becoming self-evident. As a result there are many associated education andquality assurance issues. The Engineering for the Americas (EftA) group has assembled asignificant partnership between industry, government, academe and professional associationsdedicated to achieving global leadership and making economic impacts through enhancingengineering education globally, as well as throughout the Western Hemisphere. Engineeringschools must be at the forefront of sustainable education for a sustainable future [34]. We mustprepare those who will ‗practice and carry on‘ to be the leaders, innovators, and entrepreneursour countries so desperately need.IntroductionEngineering for the Americas (EftA) represents a shared belief that engineers and scientists arethe people who stand ready to enable the economies of the Americas to compete in the globalmarketplace. If we can encourage investments in effective systems of education througheducation reform, by quality assurance and accreditation, global integration throughharmonization of degrees, the result will be enhanced workforce capabilities allowing mobilityof work and persons. Such educational change will serve to develop human capital and impactnational competitiveness. Stimulated by the globalization of the engineering profession and theindustries that it supports, and driven by increased interest in trade between countries and regionsin the American Hemisphere, a grass-roots movement to enhance engineering and technologyeducation in the hemisphere has been gathering momentum through discussions at conferencesover the past six years [14,38]. The engineering and scientific communities of the Americas havecome to the realization that they have to articulate a vision for the future. This must be a visionthat enables them to take their rightful place among global engineering communities. Science,Technology and Engineering are globally ubiquitous [32]. A group of representatives from industry, academia, government, and professionalassociations, has met periodically over the past six years to implement a concept of a WesternHemisphere Partnership. In addition the first meeting of Ministers and High Authorities ofScience and Technology acting within the framework of the Inter-American Council for IntegralDevelopment (CIDI) of the Organization of American States (OAS). This assembly which tookplace in Lima, Peru in 12 November 2004 adopted the Declaration of Lima. Subsequently, theOffice of Education, Science and Technology (OEST) of the OAS [1] in response to theDeclaration and with the assistance of several major industrial partners sponsored the“Engineering for the Americas Symposium‖ on Capacity Building for Job Creation andHemispheric Competitiveness,‖ in Lima, Peru 29 November-December 2, 2005. The outgrowthof these efforts and subsequent meetings of the Ministers in Mexico (2008) and Panama (2011)is the current mandate for the OAS Division of Science and Technology to aggressively addressthe development of the Engineering for the Americas concept [21, 23]. Continuing efforts by theMinisters now includes the EftA concept in the current working groups of Plan Panama.A nation can expect to become successful today only if it strives to create a meritocracy, inwhich positions of leadership and responsibility are distributed to the most outstandingindividuals, irrespective of social class or personal connections [2]. ―The skills, ingenuity,training and expertise of the human capital that is developed will determine the long-termprosperity of the economy, and indeed will determine the long-term prosperity of the world‖[36].Overarching GoalThe overarching goal of Engineering for the Americas is to build engineering capacity, based onquality education that creates workforce capabilities for the solution of local needs and thatopens the way for the Americas to more effectively compete in today‘s global economy.EftA VisionEngineering for the Americas will provide global leadership and achieve economic impactthrough development of the hemisphere‘s engineers. A revitalized, holistic and multidimensionalengineering experience that is recognized as meaningful and portable that will enable thehemisphere‘s engineers to develop relevant skills and to excel in facing the challenges of thetwenty-first century.EftA MissionEftA seeks to build capacity of engineering talent in the Americas and to improve regionalinnovative capacity and competitiveness. It contributes to creating holistic and entrepreneurialskills in engineering, enabling mobility, and fosters partnership between industry, government,academia and professional associations to achieve both economic and social impacts.EftA Key StrategiesThe key strategies of EftA are (1) Educational Innovation, (2) Quality Assurance andAccreditation, and (3) Job Creation (through innovation and entrepreneurship). These strategieswill engage complementary organizations over time to enhance offerings, performance, andimpact of all stakeholder and partner organizations.InternationalizationInternationalization of nearly every world activity is bringing intense pressure for change. Themultiplicity of free trade negotiations following the Uruguay and Doha Rounds of World TradeOrganization (WTO) negotiations, implementation and development cover a maze of subjectareas (i.e. twenty according to the agenda of the Doha Round). Nearly all of these disciplinesinvolve some engineering in one-way or another [18]. In particular the disciplines of tradeinvolving Agriculture, Services (including Engineering Services), Intellectual Property Rights,Market Access of non-agricultural products, WTO Rules, Environment, Electronic Commerce,Trade and Technology Transfer, Technical Cooperation and Capacity Building, etc. remain at theforefront of most discussions. The UN Millennium Goals [51] may be analyzed in a similarfashion.The Americas are one of the most economically diverse regions and present a puzzle. Countriesrange from the relatively hyper-wealthy United States and developing powerhouse Brazil to thesmall island economies of the Caribbean. Several nations are relatively poor. The averagepopulation for each country is 30 million people. The overall regional population is 871 million,second only to Asia on both counts. With the world‘s lowest average unemployment rate andpeaceful relationships, it would seem poised for broadly shared economic success. The reality isthat many of the economies appear to be stagnating. However, on a population-weighted basisincome per capita is higher than any other region, even Europe. Countries in the Americasperform better than the world average in eight of 10 economic freedom areas [19]. However,corruption and inflation are problem areas.Competition in almost every sphere has an engineering component. In short "being good is notgood enough, we must compete in a globalized economy [6]". To do so requires the very best ofthe entire workforce of every nation. Since engineering professionals are the key element in theworkforce, they must assume a leadership role in this competitive quest for success in the globalmarketplace.In the context in which we now live, e.g. internationalization, rising expectations, capacitybuilding, sustainable development, policy work [46], increasing ethical concerns, quality focusand cultural literacy, require greater participation of the engineering profession. To compete onthe global stage, attract investment, establish first-rate centers of research, and fully developproduction facilities in many countries of the hemisphere requires collaboration of manystakeholders. In short, we must recognize that a knowledge society rests on a foundation ofeducational and research excellence [56].Quality Assurance/Accreditation: The Platform for MobilityImplementation of free trade agreements demands mutual recognition of educationalqualifications of many professional groups, including engineering. It becomes axiomatic that weare concerned with "international standards not just national standards [11]." Differingeducational systems among the many nations means some form of quality assurance processmust be applied to the professional programs in higher education, including the engineeringeducation enterprise [48]. The trend appears to be replacement of government agencies withprofessional peer review systems. An extensive formation process will of necessity be requiredto meet the many demands being imposed, ranging from preparation for professional practice[19] to general capacity building [15] in some cases. A UNESCO report [24] shows that percapita gross domestic product increases as a function of increased time spent in secondary schooland higher education. Similarly, a World Bank study [55] indicates that good quality tertiaryeducation promotes economic vitality.The demand, indeed the appetite, for higher performance standards in every sector is expanding.Engineers are expected to foster progress toward a daunting array of ends-creating newknowledge, artifacts, and systems; stimulating social and economic development; creating wealthand jobs; sharpening the competitive edge; raising prospects for more satisfying lives; caring forthe environment; and providing for national security---(paraphrased from Bordogna [4]). It isclear that engineers enable nations to perform in a competitive manner and we must insist ondoing our best. Science, Technology and Engineering power national and global economies,influence international relations, and are indispensable for addressing regional and globalchallenges [32].The continuing transformation of the engineering education process remains avery complex activity, but one worthy of the effort if we are to achieve some consensus leadingto the shaping of international standards [26]. Integration into the world economic communitywill require an engineering workforce educated to international standards [ 3]. Education is thefoundation of our modern knowledge society.Without quality assurance systems there can be no mutual recognition of qualifications andhence little likelihood of readily acceptable cross-border practice of any of the licensedprofessions, including engineering. There is little doubt that engineering is the key that enables anation's capacity to perform. Most authorities would agree that the Latin America and Caribbeanarea have some Schools of Engineering reaching world class level, but the overall average is stillof low quality. Quality Assurance systems are the ‗driving force‘ for continuing qualityimprovement. Many institutions throughout the world are seeking to emulate the frontierresearch, cutting-edge tools, and skill sets that characterize world-class engineering schools.Accreditation is the key. It behooves us to develop regional systems that assist all to achievehigher educational standards.Current Status of Accreditation System DevelopmentIntroductionThe current roster of the United Nations (UN) lists a membership of 192 nations. Of these, 139are members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Clearly, the WTO provisos regardingcross border practice of licensed professions have as a prerequisite the existence of some form ofhigher engineering education that leads to the formation of qualified practitioners. In turn,cooperation among nations largely depends on the existence of quality assurance systems.Competent licensing authorities in assessing the educational and experiential qualifications ofpractitioners must rely on such quality assurance mechanisms. The establishment of benchmarksregarding the qualifications of engineers educated in the several countries is of primeimportance. External quality assurance has become the most important issue on the policyagenda of higher education systems across the world.Given the many disparities in educational systems, lack of agreement on any common body ofknowledge, and wide variations in evaluation and accreditation systems the further developmentof quality assurance systems becomes of the first order importance. Clearly, there is anopportunity to achieve agreement on appropriate attributes essential to the formation ofengineering graduates and the necessary metrics to measure and confirm them. It should be notedhere that we are here mostly concerned with programmatic accreditation as opposed toinstitutional accreditation [19, 20]. The current status of this activity in the Western Hemispherefollows:North AmericaThe three nations of the North American continent have led the world in this area of professionalactivity. In the United States (U.S) ABET, Inc. (representing 32 professional and technicalsocieties) has been in operation for nearly 75 years [29]. The Canadian Council of ProfessionalEngineers (CCPE) (now referred to as Engineers Canada) has had a comparable system fornearly 40 years [45]. In Mexico, the Consejo de Acreditacion de la Ensenanza de la Ingenieria(CACEI), an arm of the Ministry of Education, has been in operation for about 15 years [28].These three entities have frequently been called upon by other national entities for assistance inaccreditation system development. They have mutually agreed to the formation of the WesternHemisphere Partnership (now identified with the Engineering for the Americas) with theobjective of assisting nations of the Western Hemisphere in the development of national and/orregional systems of accreditation [49] and capacity building in critical systems of humanresources.Central AmericaThe seven nations of this region are cooperating in a major project (partially sponsored byUNESCO and the Inter-American Development Bank) to develop a regional system ofaccreditation [25]. This project represents the Network of Central American Faculties andInstitutions of Engineering (REDICA) of 16 public universities in seven nations. Action wasinitiated in 1998 during a workshop hosted by the Universidad de San Carlos in Guatemala. Theworkshop included representatives of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,Nicaragua and Panama, and included representatives of ABET from the U.S. and the Montevideooffice of UNESCO. Continuing efforts have resulted in a proposed system of accreditation forthe group [27], which could involve 155 public and private universities.Costa Rica has progressed more independently and implemented an accreditation committeeunder the auspices of the Colegio Federado de Arquitectos y Ingenieros (CFIA). The Colegioconducted a workshop with inputs from ABET and CEAB personnel [42] and has since adoptedthe Canadian accreditation model. Two universities now have seven accredited programs. TheConsejo Superior Universitario Centroamericano (CSUCA) has been working since 1948 onissues related to regional integration of higher education within the seven nations. The LatinAmerican and Caribbean Consortium of Engineering Institutions (LACCEI) is also working on aregional basis [43].South AmericaTwo South American nations, Argentina (Comision Nacional de Evaluacion y AcreditacionUniversitaria (CONEAU))[8]; and Colombia (Consejo Nacional de Acreditacion (CNA)) [31],have operational accreditation systems. Two others, Chile through the Comision Nacional deAcreditacion (CNA), and Peru through its Instituto para la Calidad en la Acreditacion en lasCarreras de Ingenieria y Technologia (ICACIT), have taken steps to implement programs. Anumber of professional engineers have acted as observers on ABET and CACEI institutionalvisits. Eight nations have not reported activity and two are dependencies of a European nation.Four have entertained visits by ABET and CEAB personnel. A project sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) resultedin special efforts to assist Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Peru. Heightened interest in accreditationin general is noted by the formation of "Red Iberoamericana para la Acreditacion de la Calidadde la Education Superior" (RIACES). This group includes nine nations of the continent andSpain, presently working on institutional accreditation. Further, the Asociacion Iberoamericanade Instituciones de la Ensenanza de la Inegenieria (ASIBEI) has taken steps to establish criteriafor the homogenization, evaluation and accreditation of engineering programs [35].CaribbeanPuerto Rico, a Commonwealth of the U.S., participates in the ABET accreditation system. Twonations, Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago, have taken steps to plan development of accreditationsystems. Nine nations have not reported and there are fourteen dependencies. The CaribbeanCouncil of Engineering Organizations is working with the Caribbean Community of Nations(CARICOM) to develop a regional system [14]. The Latin American and Caribbean Consortiumof Engineering Institutions (LACEI) announced a special focus on quality assurance issues [43].Western Hemisphere Summarizing the elements of the regions of the Western Hemisphere we find a total of sevennations with accreditation systems, two are in implementation stages, and eight are in ongoingplanning processes. Unfortunately, 17 have given no indication of progress being made. Thereare 16 dependencies in the hemisphere, which are most likely to pattern themselves after theassociated jurisdictions. Significantly, the Western Hemisphere contains about one-third of allthe nations in the world with quality assurance systemsPutting Research to WorkIn today‘s knowledge economy the race is to the creative entrepreneur. However, manycompanies typically do not have the resources ( e.g. talent, facilities, money, etc.) to carry oncritical research and development independently. On the other hand many universities are in aposition to produce sophisticated research, thereby adding to the knowledge base and enablingdevelopment of commercial products, leading to investments and job creation. Development ofuniversity-based Research Parks would ease the transfer of technology from laboratory to themarketplace. Such parks could be a key factor in the promotion of economic development andcompetitiveness. In the evolving knowledge based economy, the mutual interaction andexchange of intellectual goods and services create an economic model for growth anddevelopment. Not all universities should be so engaged, but there should be some centers ofexcellence in research and development in each country. Further, not all centers should beengaged in the same disciplinary effort, but they should focus their efforts in some manner. Theneed for a cooperative partnership to coordinate efforts for the benefit of all is apparent.IndicatorsThe search for appropriate indicators to assess the progress toward desired objectives is anessential activity. The United Nations and the World Bank have created sets of indicators totrack progress in certain programs. Review of these indicators shows that they are mostlyeconomic, social or health oriented and few such measures have science and/or engineeringcontent. Further, while they may reflect some degree of progress toward desired ends, theyreflect little or no cause. Therefore, this suggests that the indicators give little information aboutcause and effect of the intended development, but represent aggregated results in a way as to notbe readily identifiable with pertinent inputs. In the search for engineering excellence in pursuit ofeconomic growth and sustainable development it is believed that indicators should containfactors that are more cause and effect related.Few direct measures of the science and engineering exist throughout the continent. Therefore, notonly is an appropriate data base required, but we must come to terms with proper definitions ofthe various elements of the science and engineering workforce, and their roles in the conceptionand creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems. This informationalong with appropriate national census data is essential to the formation of appropriate sustainabledevelopment indicators.The context in which we now live (e.g. globalization, rising expectations, capacity building,sustainable development, increasing ethical concerns, quality focus and cultural literacy) allseemingly require better figures of merit. To compete on the global stage, attract investment, andemphasize first-rate centers of design and production in many countries of the hemisphere,requires some indicators that may be interpreted that activities in question have had a beneficialimpact. This is essential to the sustainable economic and social development of the hemisphere.We conclude that there is a great need for a new class of indicators that will aid public policydetermination in this regard..Associated Education and Accreditation IssuesThe globalization of the marketplace has created a demand for engineering education qualityassurance mechanisms. Not only is this important for the provision of potential mobility ofpracticing professional engineers, it is an essential ingredient in the general technical capacitybuilding of all nations. The harmonizing geopolitical and socio-economical forces at workpromote a culture of quality improvement [36] that will benefit all nations. The continuing questfor international recognition of qualifications remains as a forcing function for all of us tocontinue efforts until we achieve system compatibility, i.e. mutual recognition of internationalstandards. The inability of key players around the world to engage interactively with theircounterparts in other nations is an obstacle to the actual attainment of sustainability in mobility inmany fields of endeavor related to engineering. With respect to the Western Hemisphere, thequestion is ‖why have we for so long ignored the largest market in the world (outside of Chinaand India),‖ and not forged many North-South linkages. It is interesting to note that the proposedUNESCO Engineering Initiative [46] emphasizes this point…‖member states should invite theireducation institutions and national engineering associations to cooperate closely with UNESCO inits Engineering Initiative through South-South and North-South partnerships.There are dramatic shifts in opportunity among nations of the world. The idea that the U.S. is thesole driver of economic consumption is rapidly becoming outdated and shortsighted. Recentnews items from China indicate that the rural population is agitating for a greater share of thewealth being generated by the rapidly growing Chinese economy. China is drifting toward aconsumer-centric society. China‘s steady climb in developing infrastructure and millions ofconsumers drive opportunity worldwide. They appear to be concentrating more on their domesticeconomy. The Western Hemisphere is the largest market worldwide (other than China andIndia). We are not plagued by any civil conflicts, as are Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Weare not plagued by endless geopolitical debates as is the European Union. We do not have to dealwith a plethora of languages as in the European Union (34 at last count vs. 4 in the Americas).Interest in free trade agreements, education and capacity building, and social and economicdevelopment abound. National governments, nongovernmental organizations, and multinationalcorporations are largely shaped by their expertise in and access to intellectual and physicalcapital in science, technology, and engineering [32]. The extraordinary value of knowledge isthat there are no limits to its growth or the value it can generate [56].Future Scenarios1. There is wide interest in educational innovation and quality assurance, that is generallyviewed as very positive. At the same time there are still many difficulties in reaching commonground necessary for mutual recognition. For example, differing educational systems (length,content, structure, governance and titles), differing systems for granting the right to practice(licensure, registry, education, experience), present problems for existing systems as well asnewly developing ones. Alternative education and delivery methods, proliferation of informationtechnology and its rising influence on distance and virtual education. For example, the AmericanSociety of Civil Engineers (ASCE) is working to define a Body of Knowledge (BOK) for entryinto the practice of civil engineering at the professional level. The premise is that an engineermust possess a much higher degree of cognitive ability that allows application of knowledge tonew situations. The suggested ASCE model seeks to strengthen the cognitive ability ofengineers and encourages practices that work in cooperation and harmony with the landscape ofa project –the environment– for the benefit of society [57].2. The efforts of the Ministers and High Authorities of Science and Technology within theframework of OAS has led to the call for significant partnerships between industry, government,academia and professional associations dedicated to achieving global leadership and makingmajor economic impacts through enhancing engineering education throughout the WesternHemisphere. Based on the premise that engineering education is the key that promotes capacitybuilding of human resources, education is seen as the driver of expanded economic and socialdevelopment [39] enabling the flow of people and work across borders. The success of thismovement will largely be determined on the resolution of quality assurance mechanisms.Emphasis on ‗science‘ (all aspects of science, technology and engineering) in diplomacy anddevelopment policies requires acceleration of the rates of enhancement of engineering education.3. Accreditation system development has become a major activity. However, the differingcultures, governance systems, degree of institutional autonomy, governmental influence, degreeof NGO involvement, peer review by professionals in the discipline, etc. make for a verycomplex array of constituencies to be satisfied. Outcomes based accreditation criteria havebecome defacto the international standard for engineering education. Clearly, the attributes(standards) are of necessity changing as we seek better preparation of the those who will practiceand carry on. This is the route to enhance quality assurance.The adaptation of these criteria in many areas (geographical as well as educational) has asignificant learning curve. The Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET needed nearly adecade to fully implement and institutionalize the new outcomes based accreditation criteria. Thecreation and implementation of new accreditation systems will in most cases require a significantchange in the culture of the institutions involved and the societies in which they are based. Thereal challenge is to bring some semblance of order among the 34 nations in the hemisphere, eachwith its own set of problems, laws and ministries.4. The rapidly emerging disciplines (e.g. info-, bio-, nano-, etc.) and the blurring of boundariesbetween disciplines will present many problems for existing quality assurance systems, as wellas newly developing ones. The unique characteristics likely to be required of future graduates[22] will create added concerns for accrediting agencies. These issues will only increase inimportance as projects become larger in scale and more complex. Clearly, the way in whichengineers practice is changing dramatically. Engineering activity will encompass an increasinglybroader array of disciplines, posing further difficulties for definition of ―engineer.‖ Fewengineers will practice with one employer, in one place, in one country in the future. Mobility,flexibility and continuous learning will grow in importance.5. The US National Academy of Engineering (NAE) report, ―Engineer of 2020,‖ utilized ascenario-based planning approach. Admittedly a high-risk but high-pay-off approach [5, 40]. Thebasic premise was ―anticipate the future,‖ then shape engineering education to create asignificant dynamic role for the profession. This seminal report focuses attention on the nearlygeometric growth rate of engineering knowledge and the accelerating rate of technologicalintroduction and adoption (innovation). Surely, it should be recognized that all nations must beengaged in this process. It must not be assumed that an engineer will know all that needs to beknown by the end of the typical undergraduate educational experience. Similar studies by theAmerican Society of Civil Engineers [54], and the American society of Mechanical Engineers[44] also stress the need for changes in engineering education.6. Science oftentimes is incomplete and engineering thinking has to fill the gap; that‘s whereinnovation and entrepreneurship come in to play [52]. ―President Wulf of the NAE has stressedthe point that reinvigorating innovative capability is the key to future prosperity [47].‖This will be a major challenge inasmuch as the engineering profession seems to have avoidedbeing seen as taking a leadership role in society. However, the profession must focus oninnovation; have some understanding of global trends and the economic/societal forces at play.Social, cultural and political forces will shape and affect the success of technological innovation[41]. We must not let the natural world interrupt the advance and benefits of technology beingshared around the globe. Engineering has a major role to play, both in responsibility for basicinfrastructure and also as the keystone for building competitiveness in the global marketplace.7. Bordogna perhaps said it best, ―Engineers are expected to foster progress, toward a dauntingarray of ends-–creating new knowledge, artifacts and systems, stimulating economicdevelopment, creating wealth and jobs, sharpening the nation‘s competitive edge, raising ourprospects for more productive and satisfying lives, caring for the environment, and strengtheningthe national security [4].‖ These issues are of importance to the entire planet as well as theWestern Hemisphere.8. Achievement of the UN Millennium Goals [51] will require worldwide application of the bestengineering talent the collective nations can muster. Every single issue associated with theMillennium Goals depends on engineering: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2)Achieve universal primary education; (3) Promote gender equality and empower women; (4)Reduce child mortality; (5) Improve maternal health; (6) Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and otherdiseases; (7) Ensure environmental sustainability; and (8) Develop a global partnership fordevelopment. This framework of eight goals and the related targets and indicators to measureprogress toward desired ends is a prime example of diplomacy without ‗science‘ advise. For themost part, proposed indicators have little direct connection to science and engineering, but uponwhich most surely depend. In short there is a ‗new science‘ required in diplomacy anddevelopment [32].9. To achieve any of the above will require the engineering profession to perfect a greatlyenhanced technical expertise combined with creativity and tempered by a sophisticatedappreciation of human needs [51]. This view is quite different from the ―traditional‖ concept ofan engineer. We should expose our students to more of the concepts of leadership, innovation,entrepreneurship, and diplomacy. The EftA strategy of ―job creation‖ will depend on how adeptwe are at curriculum development, i.e. engineering education research.10. Faculty Development is critical. More full-time faculty members will be needed to achievesignificant improvements. The productive sector must take a greater interest in the work of theuniversity system, including a willingness to critique higher education. Increased access tograduate study, more time devoted to educational improvement, and enhanced research effortsare essential.11. Program and course improvement will depend largely on agreement as to a common‗attributes‘ derived in quality assurance mechanisms. Access to course /curricular workshops toprovide continuing professional development will be essential.12. Provision of reasonable patrimony laws/rules will enhance funding for development ofcenters of excellence in selected disciplines. A companion aspect will be greater partnershipsbetween universities and the productive sector. Recognition that the work of higher education is‗productive work‘ and essential to the well-being of the so-called productive sector. .13. Failure to eliminate the ‗brain drain‘ aspects of study abroad, and the subsequent migrationof the brightest simply defeats the effort to greatly enhance the contributions of indigentuniversities to the social and economic development of their host country. Efforts to createopportunities for returning scholars to make a significant contribution to their sponsoringuniversities and countries of origin will encourage a ‗brain gain.‘.14. Greater efforts to generate partnership between universities at home and abroad, betweenuniversities and the productive sector, among ministries and key universities to develop centersof excellence, thereby creating centers of innovation, leadership, and entrepreneurial enterprise.The PLAN PANAMA of the Ministers and High Authorities of Science and Technology addsemphasis to the need for science diplomacy.Why Engineering for the AmericasInternational trade, the flow of trade, has from the earliest times shaped and been shaped byhistory. In 1800 Cubans and the Argentines were richer than North Americans [6]... but the U.S.educated its population, built infrastructure, accumulated capital, mechanized agriculture, etc.and despite a civil war became a global power house. Mexico, one of the first countries in thehemisphere to have a university or a printing press, did not take steps to industrialize.Throughout Latin America, education and the industrial revolution came too late. By 1990 acitizen of Japan produced five times as much wealth as did one in Latin America. Much of theworld‘s new wealth is created by knowledge, but most of the world‘s population still works inbusiness or endeavors that produce, assemble of sell commodities.The work of the World Bank (J.D. Wolfensohn) perhaps exemplifies what EftA is trying toachieve. We...‖ must empower the poor people and the disenfranchised—the people at thefringes—and give them a real stake in society‖. This is the key to building the strongerinstitutions required for longer term sustainable development. In the current scenario all nationsare seeking to maintain and/or create centers of design and production based on education,research and innovation. Engineering is the key to building this capacity. Growth and wealth willbe distributed unevenly as long as only a few communities pay attention to their children‘sscience and engineering education and disproportionately attract the world‘s best brains [7] TheWorld Bank‘s work in the education arena seems to favor the global market and the individual asthe means to develop the knowledge and skills required for the knowledge economy to survive ona sustainable basis.Simon Ramo in addressing the National Academy of Engineering recognized the very nature ofour problem [30], ‖Either the engineering profession will broaden greatly or the society willsuffer because the matching (between society and technology) will be too haphazard‖...‖a greaterengineering needs to evolve,‖...‖it will become to embrace much more of the issues at thetechnology-society interface.‖ Finding society‘s needs and fulfilling them by designing creativesolutions has been, and will continue to be an engineer‘s role in this age of technology andprogress [10]. In short, engineers must recapture the leadership reins, not just respond to policydecisions made by others. Successful leaders don‘t start out by asking ―What do I want todo?‖...They ask, ―What needs to be done?‖ [16,17]. Should we not develop a few action itemswith a high priority and get on with the job?Bernard Amadei, the progenitor of the Engineer Without Borders movement, recounted:―Engineers have an obligation to provide solutions to meet the basic needs of all humans forwater, sanitation, food, health and energy, while at the same time protecting the cultural andnatural diversity. It is no longer an option, it is an obligation.‖ This is somewhat of a wake upcall, as we have always been a serving profession, but in this era, are we in danger of driftinginto a mere commodity mode. Nations and even civilizations do not prosper, nor will they evensurvive very long, if they can‘t provide the fundamental pillars of a knowledge-based economy[7].It is well recognized that engineering is at the core of many essential industries and services. Theso-called race for the engineering edge will be won or lost in our engineering schools [9]. Ournations are at risk if we leave innovation to others. The failure to produce adequate ‗brainpower‘in science and engineering will result in failure to gain ground in the global economiccompetition. The creation of an excellent science and engineering workforce will attract foreigninvestment. The creation of research centers and first-rate centers of design and production willbe attractive to many multinational firms.ClosureThe demand for engineering education quality assurance mechanisms is growingg. Not only isthis important for the provision of potential for mobility of practicing professional engineers it isan essential ingredient in the general technical capacity building of all nations. The harmonizinggeo-political and socio-economical forces at work promote a culture of quality improvement [29]that will benefit all nations. Those in charge of our quality assurance mechanisms must takeadvantage of the fact that they have a key role to play in this process. It is noted that the FirstAnnual Report of ECPD (forerunner of ABET) identified its aims and objectives as...‖to promoteefforts and aspirations directed toward the higher professional standards of education andpractice, greater solidarity of the profession, and greater effectiveness in dealing with technical,social, and economic problems [53].‖ The task remains.There appears to exist a continuing convergence between nations in terms of the requirements forprofessional practice. The continuing quest for international recognition of qualifications remainsas a forcing function for all of us to continue negotiations until we achieve system compatibility,i.e. mutual recognition of international standards throughout the hemisphere. At present, theinternational standard is seen to be the attributes of the Washington Accord, which is largelybased on the work of ABET/EAC and EC/CEAB. The inability of key players to engageinteractively with their counterparts in other nations is an obstacle to the actual attainment ofsustainability in many fields of endeavor related to engineering and this inability hamper ourcapacity to serve various elements of our societies.It is concluded that the ―Engineering for the Americas‖ movement is in the self-interest of allengineers as well as that of all the nations of the hemisphere (regardless of state of development).The activity is viewed as good public policy. The attraction of entrepreneurial investment, andthe resulting sustainable economic development of the hemisphere are critical to the welfare ofall. The words of Oliver Wendell Holmes contain some good advice: ―The great thing in thisworld is not so much where we stand as in what direction we are moving.‖ We should see north-south linkages as viable as east-west linkages. The proposed UNESCO Engineering Initiativeunderscores the wisdom of the EftA concept.In the late twentieth century the U.S. became aware that partnerships of colleges, businesses,industries, and many other associations formed a web/network of affiliations that were beneficialto all concerned. Now, in the early twenty-first century it is recognized that in the developmentof technological innovation, in education and training, and in opening new markets abroad,public and private sectors are often forming partnerships with a variety of stakeholders. 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Jaselskis. ―Awareness of Landscape and Ability to Think,‖ Tenth LACCEI Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology, 23-27 July 2012, Panama City, Panama. ****** 1.WHITE PAPER prepared by members of the Committee on Engineering Education of the Pan American Union ofEngineering Associations (UPADI), for use by the Delegates and High Authorities at the UPADI XXXIII Congress,to be held in Havana, Cuba 8-12 April 2012. The primary focus of the Education Symposium is on the Engineeringfor the Americas (EftA) initiative.2. Members of the AAES IntAC Task Force on UPADI and contributors to this WHIE PAPER:Dr. Robert Kersten, Dean & Professor Emeritus, University of Central Florida, rdk99@earthlink.netDr. Robert Warrington, Dean Emeritus & Director Inst. For Interdisciplinary Studies, Michigan Tech. Univ.row@mtu.eduDr. Raymond Issa, Dir. Graduate & Distance Education Programs, University of Florida, raymond-issa@ufl.eduDr. Reginald Vachon, UPADI Vice President North America, Chair AAES IntAC, rvachon@directmeasure.comDr, Norman Lerner, Ex-Sr. Advisor CITEL/OAS Interamerican Telecom. Commission, nclerner@alum.mit.eduDr. Luiz Carlos Scavarda, Vice President Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Rio De Janeiro, scavarda@puc-rio.brDr. Clifford Schexnaydar, Eminent Scholar Emeritus, Arizona State University, cliff.s@asu.edu(Comments will be welcome. Please address any of the above with a copy to the Senior Author.)

Vachon, R., & Warrington, R. O., & Kersten, R. D. (2013, June), Invited Paper - Engineering for the Americas (EftA) Paper presented at 2013 ASEE International Forum, Atlanta, Georgia. https://peer.asee.org/17245

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