June 22, 2008
June 22, 2008
June 25, 2008
Engineering Design Graphics
13.859.1 - 13.859.15
Machine Vision and Computerized Animation: Powerful Tools in Design of a Robot-Assisted Catheterization System
The desired skill set for engineers has been steadily expanding. In addition to the common concurrent skills of solid modeling, analysis, CAD/CAM and documentation, machine vision and animation are becoming increasingly valuable tools in the design and implementation of complex systems. Like other components and design software, machine vision system hardware and software have become less costly and easier to use. Animation software has also become easier to use and has proven to be effective in demonstrating and validating design concepts. In this paper, students will describe the processes they went through to learn and utilize machine vision and computerized animation in the design of a robot-assisted catheterization system.
The student authors on this paper were approached by two doctors with the challenge of combining robotics, machine vision, and medical imaging to begin developing a system capable of fully autonomous catheterization. Previously, the doctors had demonstrated the ability to perform real-time tracking of central vessels using ultrasound images and machine vision. The next step towards fully autonomous catheterization was to develop the physical infrastructure to complement the code and make the components of the system communicate with each other. Solid modeling was used to prove the concept of the physical system and optimize the configuration. In this phase of the project, hands-free imagery was achieved to be used by an operator completing central vessel catheterization.
The hands-free system provides the operator with the ability to use medical imaging to more easily and accurately find central vessels in clinical applications, and initiates the infrastructure for future, fully automated catheterization which will be required for autonomous surgical projects such as the DARPA Trauma Pod Concept1. Another research group at the University of Washington has been working on a remote, telerobotic operating room for use in military applications, allowing quicker response times for surgery on the battlefield2. Whether autonomous or controlled by telecommunications, the robotic operating room will require catheterization, and autonomous catheterization in trauma situations will be advantageous.
The three main steps during trauma resuscitation are gaining control of hemorrhaging, maintaining a functioning airway, and supporting circulation. Vital to circulatory support is obtaining intravenous access. If a central vein is chosen for access, rapid and reliable infusion of medicines and fluids can be administered. In addition, important intravascular pressure measurements can be obtained with closed loop monitoring of a central vein. Unlike peripheral veins, central veins are anatomically consistent; in severe trauma with loss of an extremity, peripheral veins may not be present. Central veins can be readily identified using ultrasound, a modality used in current medical practice. To achieve autonomous trauma resuscitation in
McDonald, J., & Crowder, S., & McInnis, C., & Yanakis, S., & Bertozzi, N., & Kaplan, D., & D'Ambra, M. (2008, June), Machine Vision And Computerized Animation: Powerful Tools In The Design Of A Robot Assisted Catheterization System Paper presented at 2008 Annual Conference & Exposition, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. https://peer.asee.org/4071
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