Salt Lake City, Utah
June 23, 2018
June 23, 2018
July 27, 2018
Design in Engineering Education
Engineering students face low levels of knowledge construction when developing competence and expertise in the engineering field [Streveler et al., 2008]. In addition, the industry is left dissatisfied by engineering students’ deficiency in potential skills and low levels of academic achievement [Felder, 2012]. In order to assist engineering students to perform well in achievement tests, it is necessary to design instructional scaffolding during the learning process. Scaffolding students’ learning via an online learning medium is quite a challenging task. There is thus the considerable need for strategies to enable instructors to assist students’ learning through such a medium. The instructional scaffolding strategy model can provide a foundation in identifying a mechanism that will lead to the description of successful metacognitive scaffolding approaches that can be used by instructors to help students in learning via an online medium.
This research paper describes and explains methods used in determining the instructional scaffolding strategy elements of a model to enhance engineering students’ knowledge construction in an online social collaborative learning environment. The design of the instructional scaffolding strategy model is examined using qualitative methodologies. The process of enhancing students’ knowledge construction is examined qualitatively using interviews, content analysis, and thematic analysis. The categorization and analysis are achieved using concept mapping.
Ten participants took part in structured interview sessions to investigate instructional scaffolding elements. These comprised five interviewees who had significantly improved their scores on an achievement test, and another five who had actively participated in a metacognitive learning activity via the Facebook discussions in the online social collaborative learning environment and had also performed well in their tests. The following are the key findings from the study: (a) Instructional Scaffolding has eight elements in total: 1 - pre-engagement; 2 - shared goal; 3 -understanding of students’ prior knowledge; 4 - provide a variety of support; 5 - provide encouragement and praise; 6 - give feedback; 7 - provide supportive and positive responses; and 8 - provide instructional support. (b) Elements to provide a variety of support and give feedback can interconnect, as in the “explanation and guide” theme from the axial coding. These themes are mapped out to design an instructional scaffolding strategy model.
More effective pedagogical practices to improve engineering students’ knowledge construction in online learning have been the subject of much argument from researchers and deserve further investigation. It is important to understand the design process of an instructional scaffolding strategy. Designing instructional scaffolding strategies as a platform for metacognitive scaffolding approaches can help instructors to improve engineering graduates’ knowledge construction in terms of higher order thinking.
Keywords: Instructional scaffolding, knowledge construction, online learning
Tan, M., & Harun, J. (2018, June), Methods to Study Elements of the Instructional Scaffolding Strategy Model for Enhancing Engineering Students' Knowledge Construction in an Online Social Collaborative Learning Environment Paper presented at 2018 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition , Salt Lake City, Utah. 10.18260/1-2--30808
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