June 14, 2015
June 14, 2015
June 14, 2015
19.24.1 - 19.24.6
NEW TRENDS IN TRAINING ENGINEERS IN RUSSIA V.G. Ivanov, V.M. Zhurakovski, S.V. Barabanova, M.F. Galikhanov, M.S. SuntsovaIndustry has always been the leading and the determining area of the state’s economic concerns;it is the industrial sector that is aimed at covering various social and individual needs for therelevant products. This is why the state must also focus on engineering education that suppliesthe manufacturing sector with professional staff. In Russia, it is the state that is acknowledged asthe duty-bearer for social and economic reforms and economic independence, as well as for therealization of its citizens’ rights and freedoms, including the education-related ones.In Russia, educational sector is a manageable subsystem legally controlled by the state. It hasalways been built up and developed directly involving various governmental managingauthorities and government bodies on the basis of necessary laws and regulations.Today, higher educational establishments are not purely state institutions anymore. If the publicfunding of higher educational establishments made 72% of the budgets they declared in 1997,then educational institutions had been publicly funded by 25-40% of the rated requirements byearly 2000s. For all this, the state was still the largest owner of the system of education with62.9% of the total number of higher educational establishments.This is why, in 1990s, the sectoral institutions-based managers’ and professionals’ careerdevelopment system was practically destroyed – the former owners of such institutions and thestate itself stopped funding and managing the system, and the new owners did not feel like goingin for personnel development.Over recent years, the state has almost stopped regulating the area of continuing education, beingof the opinion that enterprises’ personnel development should be the employer’s commitment.There are no state standards for such educational programs and they are not subject toaccreditation anymore. Without any regulatory requirements or norms, due to such approach,many employers did their best to minimize their expenditures related to educating or retrainingtheir personnel. However, the problem of interaction with the labor market that has not beensolved by now to the necessary extent or with the necessary effect becomes more and morecritical. The system of continuing professional education (hereinafter – “CPE”) was formed within theinstitutions of engineering education due to their own initiatives only: Late in 1990s – early in2000s educating economists and managers was considered to be of highest priority and mostdemanded in Russia. There were certain objective preconditions for that; however, it is quiteobvious now that it would be reasonable to pay necessary attention to educating engineers, aswell.Higher educational establishments came to be on unequal terms with non-state CPE structures,since the former ones had not been focused on working in market conditions and their activitieshad been controlled more strictly. The only opportunity to capture a market share could be thehigh quality of programs offered, due to highly-experienced teachers and experts involved inthem, good methodological support, and the high-level responsibility for their implementation.It is the active, honest and fair position of higher educational establishments that has ensuredbuilding up the new mechanisms of the private-public partnership, initiated the state’s attentionto the CPE area, and ensured its support in totally new forms.Political and economic stabilization and strengthening the administrative constituent ofmanagement have also taken the desired effect. A number of important legislative instrumentshave been adopted to support and develop higher engineering education. Such measures havebeen taken within the frames of federal target programs, and some Decrees of the RussianGovernment have also been issued with significant financial support. Strengthening theinteraction was supported by even forcible, to some extent, involving higher educationalestablishments into implementing technological platforms, the programs of companies’innovative development, into creating local and regional innovation complexes.In 2012, the Presidential Program of Engineering Personnel Development for Years 2012-2014(hereinafter – the “Program”) was adopted. It became the key document indicative of theinevitability, necessity and efficiency of the parallel participation of the state, education andbusiness in building up the professional engineering elite. The Program’s implementation was by2/3 funded by federal budget. The enterprise funded 30% of the Program costs, or 50% of budgetcosts, including covering the expenditures related to sending attendees to the training location.The Program structure included teaching in form of lectures and workshops (72 hours and more),end-of-course assessment, and practical training in Russia (up to 50% of attendees) and abroad(up to 30% of attendees).Using Kazan National Research Technological University (“KNRTU”) as an example, we cantalk of the fact that participation in implementing engineering personnel development programsin accordance with concentration programs has contributed to the development of the teachingstaff, as well; it allowed exploring best practices at the globally leading research and educationcenters and industry-leading enterprises, and improving educational technology. The universityteachers developed their lectures and prepared practical studies for the attendees within theProgram on the basis of updated teaching methods, using various remote-teaching techniques.The Program implementation experience has demonstrated that many professors lack advancedtraining or retraining themselves to ensure their meeting the modern requirements of education,science, and production. This is why the university went to additional expenses and included itsprofessors into the groups sent to practical training at Russian and foreign enterprises within theframework of the Program.All programs – and there were 7 of them within the period of the Program implementation atKNRTU – were developed and refined in accordance with the wishes of the organizations, takinginto account the requirements of the potential and actual participants of the programs, i.e.managers and engineering personnel in the real economy. At the preparatory stage, the remoteinteraction with manufacturers, especially with their staff training departments was organizedcorrectly in terms of tactic.Due to continuous communications to enterprises, we managed to achieve a system-basedpreparation of professionals to their basic studies; they have accumulated good practicalmaterials for their final assessments and formulated a number of technical innovations. Thecustomer representatives actively participated in managing teaching and learning activities, aswell as in their content formation.Teaching staff developed new resource materials that were actively used within the basicteaching and learning activities and within the system of teaching staff career development. Neweducational techniques approbated within the Program realization are successfully implementedin the basic teaching and learning activities, such as lectures being given by foreign projectpartners, including video lectures, presentations supported by audios; usage of databasesprovided by corporate customers and program partners; professional consulting at each stage ofthe program implementation, with due regard to its specialization, etc. Suggestions regardingnew academic disciplines and modules have been prepared. We are working on the developmentof new programs to participate in similar tenders in future. A successful team of professors andorganizing realizers has been built up.During the Program implementation, enterprises appraised the university’s educational, staffingand organizational potential higher, new orders for programs were created; the growth innumbers of professionals to be sent to training within the program is expected. All programshave been highly appraised for their compliance with the participating enterprises’ needs fordevelopment. The programs have ensured to a significant extent the achievement of long-termagreements between the university and enterprises and other program participants, such asconsulting organizations, information service providers, and practical training venues. In Russia, the KNRTU attendees had their practical training at large enterprises, such as the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materials (VIAM), Federal Research &Production Center ALTAI, etc. Practical training outside Russia was organized in the well-known educational research and engineering companies in the USA, Germany and CzechRepublic, such as Perdue University (West Lafayette, IN, USA), Envidatec GmbH (Hamburg,Germany), the Research Institute of Industrial Chemistry, Explosiaa.s. of the University ofPardubice (Pardubice, Czech Republic), etc.Approaches and practices developed by the leading higher educational establishments of Russiain the course of the program implementation appear to be worth of being included into the bestpractices of developing new approaches in engineering education.  It may be no accident thatthe success in the Program implementation, the excellence of staff qualifications improvement,revitalizing direct partnership links among higher educational establishments and enterprisesspecializing in the same industries gave rise to developing by the Ministry of Education andScience of Russia a draft of the new institutional program aimed at developing engineeringpersonnel in 2015 and beyond.In 2010-2015, a variety of other legal regulations was adopted that are important forstrengthening the continuing professional education system and for enhancing its role. Thus,early in 2015, the Russian Government approved the Conception of the Federal Target EducationDevelopment Program for Years 2016-2020. It is specially focused on the necessity ofdeveloping the continuing adult education, as well as on the continuing professional education ofprofessionals and managers.The Federal Law “On Education in the Russian Federation” dated December 29, 2012 legalizedthe new forms of the co-operation of enterprises and higher educational establishments in CPEstarting from September 1, 2013. This particularly applies to the web-based implementation ofeducational programs and to using e-learning and online education technology.Developing engineering and natural science education is a visible trend of higher education inRussia. At the same time, higher educational establishments put high hopes on the measures ofthe State support for the co-operation of enterprises and educational organizations, secured in theFederal Law “On Industrial Policy” to become effective in June, 2015. This law formalizes inlegislation the principle of integrating research, education and industry as one of the industrialpolicy principles. The law provides for the full financial, informational and consulting support bythe state for the development of the human resources at enterprises and at organizationsperforming educational activities under continuing professional education programs.The development of human resources at defense industry complex organizations becomes one ofthe priority areas of building up and implementing the industrial policy.The enterprises were offered the prospects of providing them with academic and scientificmaterials, as well as with of funding them, provided that they let establish at their premisesorganizations rendering educational services under continuing professional education programsin order to bring theoretical knowledge into line with practical skills and know-hows.Lastly, Russian educational establishments are more and more active in their penetration intoregional cluster models as a new form of solving the problem of training and retrainingengineers. Thus, KNRTU is a founder of the Kama Regional Innovation Production Clusterspecialized in oil and gas processing, petrochemistry, and automobile manufacturing. It includesdozens of the Tatarstan Republic’s enterprises. A State Program aimed at supporting the clusterfor years 2013-2016 was approved by Resolution No. 624 of the Cabinet of Ministers of theRepublic of Tatarstan dated September 3, 2013. The cluster represents an integral mechanism ofdeveloping the territory, in which educational establishments and research centers play a keyrole.  Due to interaction between educational centers and industrial enterprises, it becomespossible to create in enterprises a long-term demand for and an interest in innovations, and tosecure both domestic and external markets.Today, the KNRTU is a modern, powerful educational, research and production complex. It is aperfect example of a positive result obtained from combining the efforts of the state, businesses,and research and educational community aimed at improving engineering education. Among theother Russian higher educational establishment specialized in chemistry and technology, theKNRTU is the leader in training highly-competent professionals. The university infrastructureincludes 32 small innovation businesses and 33 research and education centers with leadingresearch and educational agencies of our country. The university collaborates with 111organizations in 33 countries. An important part of its activities is continuing professionaleducation. It is KNRTU with its CPE system that has become an outstanding example of theefficiency of public and private partnership in innovative forms.The KNRTU experience of participating in the Presidential Program of Engineering PersonnelDevelopment allowed applying a three-tier scheme in organizing the cluster enterprises’employees development. In this case, the implementation of a professional development programincludes stages, such as:- Studying the innovation development plans of the enterprises within the cluster to develop aninnovative model of the cluster enterprises’ personnel professional development;- Developing an educational program;- Purchasing the modern training and research equipment that allows simulating technology,expected products, etc.;- Organizing the training processes for the enterprises’ employees;- Selecting the leading educational, research or engineering center for practical training;- Selecting the heads of practical training among teaching, scientific or engineering staff of thehost company;- Developing practical training plans and guidance materials, including writing tutorials ororganizing the additional modules of lectures in practical training areas;- Implementing practical training plans, teaching the trainees at the leading educational, researchor engineering center.Summarizing the above and mapping out the prospects of the Russian higher and continuingengineering education, we can say that today, we are faced with a difficult, but interesting periodof solving the problem of assuring its high international level, using our own resources. At thesame time, the system of education is faced with the new industrialization and building up thepost-industrial culture in economy and in society. This will require a new level of interactionwith businesses, as well as their pronounced interest in personnel and scientific developments.Russia’s involvement into the post-industrial global world, in its turn, would require opennessfor innovations and collaboration. Solving these problems will also need the involvement of thestate and various measures to support the system of education.Bibliography Trendy razvitiya vysshey shkoly Rossii [Tertiary School Development Trends in Russia] (In Russian) //Universitetskoye upravleniye: praktika i analiz [University Management: Practices and Analyses]. 2015. No. 1. Pp.7-17. Crawley E.F., Malmqvist J., Östlund S., Brodeur D.R., Edström K. Rethinking Engineering Education: TheCDIO Approach. (In Russian). M. 2015. P. 89. Ivanov V.G., Galikhanov M.F., Barabanova S.V., Guzhova A.A. Presidential Program for the Training ofEngineers. Experience of a Research University// IGIP/ICL Intern.Conf. Dubai, 2014. ID: 282. Programma razvitiya Kamskogo innovatsionnogo territorialno-proizvodstvennogo klastera na period do 2020goda [Development Program of Kama Regional Innovation Production Cluster for the Period till 2020] (in Russian;approved on April 17, 2012).
Ziyatdinova, J. (2015, June), NEW TRENDS IN TRAINING ENGINEERS IN RUSSIA Paper presented at 2015 ASEE International Forum, Seattle, Washington. https://peer.asee.org/17147
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