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Studies On Stress Concentration Using Experimental And Numerical Methods

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2010 Annual Conference & Exposition


Louisville, Kentucky

Publication Date

June 20, 2010

Start Date

June 20, 2010

End Date

June 23, 2010



Conference Session

Mechanics Division Poster Session

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Page Count


Page Numbers

15.1137.1 - 15.1137.12

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Paper Authors


Somnath Chattopadhyay

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Dr. Som Chattopadhyay is the Program Leader for Mechanical Engineering at Penn State University in DuBois, PA. He teaches mechanics, design and manufacturing, and performs research in fatigue and fracture in metallic and P/M materials. He is the author of a text on pressure vessel design and is an associate editor of the ASME Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology

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Rajesh Kitey

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NOTE: The first page of text has been automatically extracted and included below in lieu of an abstract

Studies on Stress Concentration Using Experimental and Numerical Methods

ABSTRACT The experimental and numerical studies were conducted to investigate the stress concentration around a circular cutout in an isotropic material. Test specimens with circular holes were loaded in tension and bending. The tension test specimen was loaded in an Instron test machine. By mounting a set of strain gages orthogonal to the applied loading direction, the students performed the longitudinal strain measurements in the vicinity of the hole. The strains obtained by the series of strain gages placed at varying distances from the hole were extrapolated to the edge of the hole to determine the peak stress at the hole. These peak stresses were divided by the corresponding nominal far field stresses to obtain the stress concentration factors for specimen loaded in tension. The bending case was investigated with a cantilever beam with a hole at its mid span. The Flexor setup by Vishay Instruments was used for this purpose. The hole was located in such a way that the nominal stress at the fixed end was the same as the one at the location of the hole. Strain gages were placed at varying distances from the edge of the hole, one being directly adjacent to the edge. Known amounts of load were applied at the free end of the beam. The peak strains at the hole were extrapolated from the strain gage readings similar to what was done for the tension case. The stress concentration factor is the peak strain at the hole divided by the nominal strain at the same location. The experimental results on stress concentrations were compared with finite element solutions performed on the specimen geometries and loadings similar to the ones used in the experiments. A mesh of quadrilateral elements was used to model both the tensile bar and the cantilevered beam specimens with holes. The tensile and the bend specimen geometry and loadings were used to calculate the stress concentration factors. The two dimensional finite element simulations were performed using ANSYS general-purpose computer program. The nodal stresses were used to calculate the stress concentration factors. The stress concentration factors obtained by the experimental and numerical methods were compared with the corresponding closed form solutions.

INTRODUCTION This study constitutes a laboratory component of the strength of materials courses taught to both engineering and engineering technology students. It is important that engineering students learn the detrimental effects of stress raisers such as notches, holes, and sharp corners in machine members. Such discontinuities can cause a large rise in stress above the nominal value. This topic is introduced in the strength of materials course in the design of a stepped shaft with keyways subjected to bending, torsion, as well as axial loads. The nominal axial stress, the bending stress, and the shear stress due to torsion in the shaft are each multiplied by the corresponding stress concentration factors obtained from the literature. This approach does not generally present a convincing argument to the engineering student so there is a need to provide a different perspective to reinforce the concept of stress concentration. This issue is addressed through an experimental method as well as a numerical method. The experimental method uses strain gages in which the actual strains and also stresses can be measured in the laboratory. The numerical method is based on a finite element solution. In a tensile specimen, a discontinuity

Chattopadhyay, S., & Kitey, R. (2010, June), Studies On Stress Concentration Using Experimental And Numerical Methods Paper presented at 2010 Annual Conference & Exposition, Louisville, Kentucky.

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