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Sustainable Production of Ethanol from Kudzu: Experimental Prototype Studies

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Conference

2016 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition

Location

New Orleans, Louisiana

Publication Date

June 26, 2016

Start Date

June 26, 2016

End Date

August 28, 2016

ISBN

978-0-692-68565-5

ISSN

2153-5965

Conference Session

Subjects in Renewable Energy and Sustainability in ET

Tagged Division

Engineering Technology

Page Count

13

DOI

10.18260/p.25989

Permanent URL

https://peer.asee.org/25989

Download Count

75

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Paper Authors

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Cyril B Okhio Kennesaw State University

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Cyril Okhio, Ph.D., C.Eng.(PE), M.I.Mech.E., MASME, MASEE

SUMMARY
Cyril B. Okhio is currently an Adjunct Professor in the School of Arts & Sciences, Clark Atlanta University. Dr. Okhio earned his B.S. (General Engineering) and Ph.D. (Mechanical Engineering) degrees from the University of London. He is registered as a Chartered Professional Engineer with the Council of Registered Engineers, United Kingdom; a Member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, UK and a Member of the Institute of Transportation Engineers, USA. Dr. Okhio has many years of administrative experience including the Chairmanship of the Mechanical Engineering Department, Bendel State University.
Dr. Okhio has carried out experimental and numerical investigations of, and developed statistical analysis tools and computer codes, for the calculation of complex flows. Some of this work has been published in international journals. He is currently involved in multi-disciplinary research and development concerning Vehicle to Vehicle, Human to Vehicle Interaction and communication, under the purview of a Transportation, Vehicular Systems and Safety Engineering hub associated with SPSU Visualization & Simulation Research Center for which he is a co-PI.
Dr. Okhio is very familiar with the level of technology and development, world-wide. He has visited many countries including Taiwan, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Senegal, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Italy, France, and he lived in the United Kingdom for more than 12 years. He is married with two children.

EDUCATION
Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering
Queen Mary College & Imperial College
University of London, United Kingdom, April 1982
Dissertation Topic: Computational & Experimental Investigation of Flows
through Wide Angle Conical Diffusers-applications in Combustion, Swirling
Turbulent Flows, Multi-Phase, and Multi-Physics Flows. Thesis
Supervisors: Profs. G. Langer; P. Bradshaw; H. Horton; B. Spalding.
B.Sc. Engineering with Honors
Thames Polytechnic-Woolwich College
University of London, United Kingdom, July 1977
Dissertation Topic: Design, Construction & Testing of a Cross-flow Wind
Turbine. Supervisor: Profs. Bittle & Jefferies.
ACADEMIC HONORS & AWARDS
• Shell BP, Outstanding Scholarship Award, 1972 -1974
• Shell International Oil Company Outstanding Scholarship Award, 1974-1980
• British Science & Engineering Research Council (SERC) Award, 1980-1983
RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS
• NSF-PSLSAMP Research Professor 2011 to 2012. Task -Design, Fabrication and Testing of 3 & 5 Bladed Ultra-Low Speed Wind Turbines for Modular Applications.
• NSF-PSLSAMP Research Professor 2010 to 2011. Task -Design, Fabrication and Testing of 2 & 3 Bladed Ultra-Low Speed Wind Turbines for Modular Applications
• Post-Doctoral Fellowship sponsored by Science & Engineering Research Council, England 1980-1983. Designed, Analyzed and Simulated A 2-D Separation Bubble in a Subsonic Wind Tunnel.
• Summer Research PI, at NASA-Glenn Research Lab, Cleveland, OH, 1991- 1996. Designed Student Recruitment, Nurturing, Retention, Graduation & Tracking for Cleveland, Ohio community schools for Central State University benefit.
Modeled flow transport processes in conical diffusers and turbine nozzles.
PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE (Summaries)
January 2013 – Present Adjunct & Research Professor (Articulation- GTRI)
School of Arts & Sciences
Dual Degree Engineering Program
Clark Atlanta University
Atlanta, Georgia
August 2008 – 2013 Associate Professor of Mechatronics Engineering
School of Engineering
Southern Polytechnic State University
Marietta, GA
January 2010 - January 2011 Program Director/Founding Chair of
Mechanical Engineering Department
School of Engineering
Southern Polytechnic State University Marietta, Georgia
August 1996-August 2008 Associate Professor (Tenured)
School of Arts & Sciences
Dual Degree Engineering Program & Department of
Engineering
Clark Atlanta University
Atlanta, Georgia
October 1992-August1996 Director, CSU-NASA Resch Lab for Engineering
& Technology - ReLEnT
Department of Manufacturing Engineering
Central State University
Wilberforce, Ohio
January 1988-Agust 2008 Associate Professor (Tenured)
Department of Manufacturing Engineering Central State University
Wilberforce, Ohio
January 1988-August 1990 Associate Professor
International Center for Water Resources
Management
Central State University
Wilberforce, Ohio
October 1993-August 1996 Associate Director
Developing Nations Product Development Center Central State University
Wilberforce, Ohio
August 1984-January 1988 Chair
Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology
Bendel State University
Bendel State
Nigeria.
August 1981-August 1984 Post-Doctoral Research Fellow (Science &
Engineering Research Council Award) Mechanical & Aeronautical Departments Queen Mary College, Imperial College University of London, United Kingdom.

INDUSTRIAL EXPERIENCE (Summaries)
August 1974- 1983 Co-ops & Internships & Employment
Shell-BP International Oil Company Waterloo,
London, United Kingdom.
August 1997- date Consultant (Distance Learning Strategic Planning)
Peninsula Technikon
Cape Town South Africa.
October 1990-2003 Research Scientist (Low NOx Jet Engine Designs)
General Electric/CSU Ohio.
October 2002-2008 Research Scientist (Automated Inspection Systems)
Ford Glass Company/CAU/GIT
Memphis Tennessee.
NOTED PROFESSIONAL SERVICES & AFFILIATIONS
• ASEE: Reviewer for the 2015 International Conference Papers
• Cyberjournals – Associate Editor
• C.O.R.E.N. : Member, Council of Registered Engineers of Nigeria
• M. I. Mech. E.: Corporate Member, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, UK
• Member – Institution of Transportation Engineers, USA
• Vice President, National Society of Professional Engineers, Cobb Chapter
• Member, Board of Trustees, NSPE, Cobb Chapter
• C.Eng. - Chartered Professional Engineer, IMechE, UK & Europe (#340366)
• Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ASME (#100714681)
• Member, American Society of Engineering Educators, ASEE
• Member, Advisory Board, Atlanta Technical College, Industrial Technology
GRANTS, CONTRACTS & FELLOWSHIPS (Summaries)
Total Grants & Contracts Participation Exceed $10 million
Grant I: (PI - Cyril Okhio)
Period: 1993-1996
Amount: $600K
Agency: NASA Lewis Research Center
Title: To carry out research under a unit titled "Research Laboratory for Engineering and Technology" (ReLEnT) at Central State University.
Grant II - (Proprietary: PI - Cyril Okhio)
Title: “Research Facility To Study Flows Through Annular Diffusers"
Agency: GE/NASA-LRC
Amount: $ 469K
Period: 1994 - 1998
Grant III: (PI - Cyril Okhio)
Title: NPARC - CFD Code Validation Experimentation for Component Designs.
Agency: NASA Glenn
Amount: $ 360K
Period: 1996 - 1999
Grant IV: (Co-PI – Cyril Okhio)
Title: Tertiary Education Linkage Program TELP
Team: Collaborative - MIT, CAU, HU & NCA&T.
Agency: USAID
Amount: $2.5Million
Period: 1996 – 2005
Contract V: (Collaborative with GIT) Co-PI - Cyril Okhio
Title: Mechatronic Design of Automated IR-Based Inspection System
Amount : $300K
Period: January 1998 – October 2005
Agency: FORD GLASS and DoE
Grant VI: (co-PI – Cyril Okhio)
Title: Visualization and Simulation Instrumentation and Research Grant
Amount: $200K (including SPSU Matching)
Period: January 2009 – January 2011
Agency: Army Research Office DURIP
Grant VII: (Collaborative with KIA) - PI
Title: KIA-RULE KIA Research, Undergraduate Learning Experience
Submitted: June, 2012 and funded
Agency: KIA Motors, WestPoint, Georgia
Grant Contract VIII: (PI) Southern Polytechnic State University
Title: A Multi-disciplinary Study of Highway Safety Needs Analysis for Bicyclist and
Pedestrians in Georgia.
Submitted: July, 2012
Amount: $175K Not Funded
Agency: Georgia Department of Transportation, R&D Division
Relevance to Mechatronics: Transportation, Vehicular & Safety Systems, Diagnostics &
Prognostics Research.
Grant Contract IX: (PI) Southern Polytechnic State University
Title: Advanced Vehicular Systems Research
Award: 2 KIA Cars every 12 – 24 months for Research & Development.
Procured: March 2014
Amount: $100K per year
Agency: KIA Motor Manufacturing & Assembly Plant, WestPoint, Georgia
Grant Contract X: (PI) Clark Atlanta University
Title: Laboratory for Advanced Vehicular Systems Research & Training
Award: 2 KIA Cars every 12 – 24 months
Procured: Pending
Amount: $93K per year
Agency: KIA Motor Manufacturing & Assembly Plant, WestPoint, Georgia
Grant Contract XI: (co-PI) Clark Atlanta University
Title: Advanced Manufacturing Research & Development-MSIPP Consortium (CAU,
NCA&T, HowardU, UDC, HamptonU, SUNO)
Period: October 2012 to 2017
Amount: $6.5 mil funded
Agency: DoE
NOTABLE RESEARCH & EDUCATION ACTIVITIES (Summaries):
• Research Studies on Advancing Student Participation in Campus Sustainability
• Workshop on Eco-District Exchange
• Establishing Research Paradigms for Sustainability, Safety & Recyclability of ALM Materials
• Infusing Sustainability concepts into Science & Engineering Curricula
• Development of Non-Destructive Flaw Detection Testing Laboratory for ALM Components (DoE-NNSA)
• Development of Bio-Mechatronics Research Laboratory
• Organizing to establish CAU as a USGBC-LEED Lab in the S.E. region
• Design and development of a multi-disciplinary Eco-Entrepreneurship Program Curriculum
SELECTED DESIGN PROJECTS
1. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Bone.
2. Design and Development of Bio-Compatibility Index for Bio-Materials.
3. Experimental Ultra-low Speed Wind Energy Investigation for Modular Applications.
4. Studies on Sustainability, Recyclability & Safety of AM Materials.
5. Advancements in the study of the Impacts of student participation in Campus Sustainability.
6. Development & Implementation of Campus Sustainability Best Practices – CAU
7. Design, Development & Implementation of LEED Laboratories - a multidisciplinary immersion course that utilizes the built environment to educate and prepare students to become green building leaders and sustainability-focused citizens.
8. Design & Testing of Nozzles & Diffusers-Applications in AM Metal Powder Fed Systems.
9. Design of Experiments for NDT for AM Metal Components.
10. Design of Experiments for Surface Finish Evaluation of 3D AM Metal Components.
SELECTED CONFERENCE SEMINARS & PRESENTATIONS
• Okhio, C. B., Allen, R. G. (late), &. Indelicato, R. What Students Should know and How Teachers Can Guide the Development of Professional Engineers, Presented at the 8th Annual Interdisciplinary Conference for Teachers of Undergraduates: Teaching

Matters: Just What Do you teach?” March 2010.
• Okhio, C. B., Masamoto, &. Stone, D. The Impact of 3D Development on Teaching & Learning: What Works – A Review. Presented at the 9th Annual Interdisciplinary Conference for Teachers of Undergraduates: Teaching Matters: Just What Do you teach?” Gordon College, March 2011.
• How Teachers Can Guide the Development of Professional Engineers, Proceedings of the 8th Annual Interdisciplinary Conference for Teachers of Undergraduates: Teaching Matters: Just What Do you teach?” March 26 – 27, 2010.
• Okhio, C. B., Hodges, D., Black, J. Review of Literature on Nano fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Properties, Cyber Journals: International Multidisciplinary Journals in Science and Technology, Journals of Selected Areas in
• Nanotechnology (JSAN), December 2010.
• Okhio, C. B., Waning, J., Mekonnen, T. M. An Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Bamboo and Cain, Cyber Journals: International Multidisciplinary Journals in Science and Technology, Journals of Selected Areas in Bioengineering (JSAB), December 2010.
• Okhio, C. B., Waning, J., Mekonnen, T. M. An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Moisture Content on the Mechanical Properties of Bamboo and Cain, Cyber Journals: International Multidisciplinary Journals in Science and Technology, Journals of Selected Areas Bioengineering, (JSAB), November 2011.
• Okhio, C. B., Masamoto, &. Stone, D. The Impact of 3D Development on Teaching & Learning: What Works – A Review. Proceedings of the 9th Annual Interdisciplinary Conference for Teachers of Undergraduates: Teaching Matters: Just What Do you teach?” Gordon College, March 2011.
• Okhio, C. B., Adams, Mar Tia. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Green Tea, White Tea and Hibiscus Extract and Their Performance as Corrosion Inhibitors. Cyber Journals: Multidisciplinary Journals in Science and Technology, Journals of Selected Areas in Bioengineering (JSAB), March 2012.
• Okhio, C. B., Panaitescu, R., Asgill, A., Misoc, F., Tippens, S., Orekan, T. Energy Production and Consumption – Next 25 Years and Counting, Conference Proceedings, International Conference on Renewable Energy and Power Quality (ICREPQ’12), Spain, Vol. 13, March 2012.
• Okhio, C. B., Asgill, A., Misoc, F., Orekan, T. Renewable Energy Resources – A
• Case for the Tropics, Accepted for Presentation at the, International Conference on Renewable Energy and Power Quality (ICREPQ’12), Spain, March 2013.
• Misoc, F., Ball, T., Asgill, A., Misoc, Okhio, C. B., Project-based Curriculum for Renewable Energy Engineering/Technology, ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings, June 25, 2013, page 118.
• Okhio, C. B., Olatidoye, O., Misoc, F., Asgill, A. Incorporating Research into the Undergraduate Curriculum in Engineering and Engineering Technology-(E/ET) Lessons Learned. Abstract accepted for publication, ASEE Annual Conference, June 25, 2014

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Florian Misoc Southern Polytechnic College of Engr and Engr Tech

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Dr. Florian Misoc is an Associate Professor in the Southern Polytechnic College of Engineering at Kennesaw State University.
Dr. Misoc earned his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Kansas State University. He also holds a Master's of Science Degree in Engineering Technology from Pittsburg State University, and a Bachelor's Degree in Physics from the University of Bucharest, Romania. He is a registered Professional Engineer in the state of Arkansas. Dr. Misoc's research is in the areas of renewable energy (generation, transmission and distribution), power electronics, and vehicular systems.

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Austin B. Asgill Kennesaw State University

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Dr Austin B. Asgill received his B.Eng.(hons) (E.E.) degree from Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone, his M.Sc. (E.E.) degree from the University of Aston in Birmingham, and his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of South Florida. He is currently a Professor and Department Chair of Electrical and Computer Engineering Technology at Kennesaw State University (KSU). Prior to joining the faculty at KSU (formerly SPSU), he was an Associate Professor of Electronic Engineering Technology at Florida A&M University (FAMU), where he served as Program Area Coordinator and Interim Division Director. With over 25 years of teaching experience in Electrical/Electronic Engineering and Engineering Technology, he currently teaches in the areas of networking, communication systems, biomedical instrumentation, digital signal processing, and analog and digital electronics. He has worked in industry in the areas of telephony, networking, switching and transmission systems, and RF and MMIC circuits and system design. Dr. Asgill also has an MBA in Entrepreneurial Management from Florida State University. He has served on the board of the Tau Alpha Pi (TAP) National ET Honors Society since 2012 (Chair 2012-2014). He is a Senior Member of the IEEE, a Member of the ASEE, and is a licensed Professional Engineer (P.E.) in the state of Florida.

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Aarick Aroz Zaman

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Jarred Lee Prince

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Olajimi Mark

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Brion Allen Daffinson Southern Polytechnic State University

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Brion Daffinson is a Field Engineer at Amendia in Marietta, GA. Since graduating from Southern Polytechnic State University in May of 2015, he has taken his knowledge of mechanical design to the spinal device industry. Brion supports orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons with clinical issues, investigates medical device improvements, designs surgical instrumentation, and assists training and education of spine implants and procedures. He is a Certified SolidWorks Associate and is greatly interested in spine implant and instrument design. He finds it extraordinarily gratifying to develop a device to improve upon patients’ lives and allow them to walk pain free. He hopes to gain experience in this field and hopefully play a part in the successful evolution of spine surgery procedures.

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Olugbemiga Olatidoye Clark Atlanta University

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Dr. Olugbemiga A. Olatidoye is a tenured full Professor of Engineering at Clark Atlanta University (CAU). He is the Director and founder of the Visualization, Simulation and Design Laboratory (ViSiDeL) (A Virtual Reality Lab), and the newly created Center for Alternative, Renewable Energy, Technology and Training (CARET2) / AUC Sustainable Campus Community Initiative (ASCCI) / Center for Additive Manufacturing. He is the Coordinator of Dual Degree Engineering program at CAU, (http://www.cau.edu/Academics_DDEP_Welcome.aspx). He also directs the Electronic Commerce Resource Center (ECRC) at CAU. Among other Centers he directed at CAU are Army High Performance Computing Center (AHPCRC) and DoD Major Shared Resource Center (Army Research Laboratory (ARL), Army Corp of Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (CEWES) and Aeronautic System Center (ASC) Wright Patterson Air Force Base), all of which are Department of Defense (DoD) funded projects (http://www.visidel.cau.edu) (http://www.caret2.com).

Dr. Olatidoye received his Bachelor degree in Architectural Engineering in areas of Structures from North Carolina A&T State University in 1982. He completed his Masters degree in Architecture (Solar Energy), at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), another Master degree in Civil Engineering, in Engineering Computer Graphics at Georgia Institute of Technology and State University (Georgia Tech), Atlanta. Other degrees from Georgia Tech are Knowledge Engineering and Doctorate degree with emphasis on Intelligent Graphics. He was a member of the Board of Directors at Georgia Tech. He is also a member of the Board of Director for the Georgia Youth Apprenticeship program of the Atlanta Public Schools. He is a Structural Engineer by practice. His research areas include “The Design and Application of an Optimization Model for Thermal Performance of Atrium Buildings”, his thesis at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia in 1985, leads to the “Development of a User Friendly Micro Computer Analysis Method For Assessing Energy Retrofit Options In Residential and Light Commercial Building”. Other areas of research are on Biofuel production, Structural Dynamic, Visualization, Simulation and Design. He is presently the faculty advisor for the Students Chapter of the National Society of Black Engineers at the Atlanta University Center (AUC). He had chaired and presented at several notable conferences such as World Automation Congress Conference. Recently he was selected to serve on the proposal review panels for National Science Foundation (NSF) Interactive Graduate Education and Research Training (IGERT) program as a Lead reviewer, Writer, Reader and Scribe. Prof. Olatidoye has written over 90 proprietary technical papers that span over four Universities and Industries. He has also several publications in refereed journals and conference proceedings and Chair several Conference sessions and as invited speaker on several occasions. He started a consulting firm 1985, Tido Tech International (TTi), http://www.ttics.com. He is a member of the “Men of Valor” at the East West Church in Marietta, Georgia. He is also a member of the US Army Science Board.

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Abstract

Sustainable Production of Ethanol from Kudzu: Experimental Prototype Studies

Abstract Experiments show that Georgia Kudzu contains about a 50/1 carbon/nitrogen ratio. The generally accepted and in-use carbon to nitrogen ratio is around 30/1 and this can usually be achieved through well understood fermentation and distillation technologies as described here. These processes are the techniques through which Ethanol is extracted form sugar cane and corn. This research effort shows that Kudzu Plant (a wild growing weed/plant in the state of Georgia and elsewhere) can be a viable, however not a standalone source of ethanol. The initial focus of this effort was on the plant itself, and the current associated products and uses. As the literature revealed, Kudzu is a viable source of Ethanol. Thus, with this renewable source of Ethanol, it is conceivable that a good alternative source for the enhancement of Bio-Fuels production from Algae and other Vegetable Oils has been found. The later effort then provided the needed basis for the answers to the “how” aspects of the production technology. The initial design approach in this effort, were limited to three aspects: harvesting, processing and product distribution. The final designs show strong promise for Ethanol production from Kudzu. These will include ergonomic harvesting, processing the material from actual plant matter, all the way to distillation into Ethanol, and conceptual designs for harvesting from places where Kudzu has become a nuisance in combination with harvesting from Kudzu farms yet to be established.

Key Words: Sustainable, Energy source, Ethanol, Kudzu Plant, Vines, Tap-Roots, Fermentation, distillation, Sugar Cane, Algae, Vegetable Oils, Corn, Carbon-to-Nitrogen Ratio, Ergonomic harvesting, Processing, Design of experiment

Okhio, C. B., & Misoc, F., & Asgill, A. B., & Zaman, A. A., & Prince, J. L., & Mark, O., & Daffinson, B. A., & Olatidoye, O. (2016, June), Sustainable Production of Ethanol from Kudzu: Experimental Prototype Studies Paper presented at 2016 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, New Orleans, Louisiana. 10.18260/p.25989

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