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The Effects of Worked Examples on CAD Performance: An Application of the Four-Component Instructional Design Model to CAD Instruction

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2011 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition


Vancouver, BC

Publication Date

June 26, 2011

Start Date

June 26, 2011

End Date

June 29, 2011



Conference Session

Teaching Strategies for Solid Modeling

Tagged Division

Engineering Design Graphics

Page Count


Page Numbers

22.1454.1 - 22.1454.10



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Paper Authors


Spencer Barnes North Carolina State University

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Spencer Barnes is an Adjunct Assistant Professor of Industrial Design at North Carolina State University (NCSU) and he teaches automotive design, parametric modeling, and surface modeling to undergraduate and graduate Industrial Design students. Spencer is a Technology Education doctoral candidate in the NCSU Department of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education as well. His research primarily focuses on engineering education and CAD. In particular, he is interested in the effective presentation and delivery of CAD instruction in blended learning and distance education environments.

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Eric N. Wiebe North Carolina State University

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Eric N. Wieb, Ph.D.
Dr. Wiebe is an Associate Professor in the Graphic Communications Program at NC State University. He has authored or co-authored four texts on technical graphics and has been involved in Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/3-D modeling development and use since 1986. He has also worked on the integration of scientific visualization concepts and techniques into both secondary and post-secondary education. Dr. Wiebe is past editor of the Engineering Design Graphics Journal and has been a member of the EDG Division of ASEE since 1989.

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Theodore J. Branoff North Carolina State University

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Dr. Branoff is an Associate Professor in the Department of Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education at North Carolina State University. A member of ASEE since 1987, he has served as Chair of the Engineering Design Graphics Division of ASEE and as Associate Editor in charge of paper reviews for the Engineering Design Graphics Journal. He is currently President of the International Society for Geometry and Graphics. Dr. Branoff’s research interests include spatial visualization in undergraduate students and the effects of online instruction for preparing technology education teachers and engineers. Along with teaching courses in introductory engineering graphics, computer-aided design, descriptive geometry, and instructional design, he has conducted CAD and geometric dimensioning & tolerancing workshops for both high school teachers and local industry.

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The Effects of Worked Examples on CAD Performance: An Application of the Four-Component Instructional Design Model to CAD Instruction This presentation discusses enhancements to current instructional practices forengineering graphics and constraint-based modeling courses taught at the collegiate leveland introduces a novel application of an instructional design framework directed towardsthe design and dissemination of interactive CAD tutorials. With the adoption of onlinelearning management systems (e.g., Blackboard™, Moodle™, etc.) designed to supportblended (hybrid) learning environments, students are held more accountable for theirindependent learning and engage in less face-to-face instructional time with theirprofessors. Because of this, it has become evident that new pedagogical approaches toCAD instruction need to be developed. Several engineering graphics researchers andinstructors have made efforts to accommodate these challenges by designing generalCAD tutorials that attempt to leverage the power of blended learning environments butonly a few of these endeavors have yielded substantial learning gains over time.Conversely, the literature records no efforts to systematically approach these challengesand apply a substantive instructional design framework to CAD instruction. The researchpresented in this paper examines how worked examples in the form of tutorial videos,which demonstrate how solid modeling tasks should be completed, can serve as scaffolds(i.e., learning support). Part of teaching undergraduate engineering students aboutconstraint-based modeling is learning the concept of design intent and how to effectivelyapply it to virtual solid models of engineered parts. However, design intent is a complexand context-specific concept that is hard to convey to students. The Four-ComponentInstructional (4C/ID) Model was used as a potentially powerful framework forstructuring the design and administration of these tutorial videos that focus on modelconstruction and embedding design intent. A total of 120 students enrolled in GC120-Foundations of Engineering Graphicswere divided between control and experimental treatments, with the experimental groupreceiving tutorial videos designed around the 4C/ID model. These two treatment groupswere analyzed for the ways in which the tutorial videos were used to support learningsolid modeling tasks and how this knowledge was subsequently transferred to novel solidmodeling tasks were analyzed in order to determine the best practices for creating andadministering CAD tutorials in hybrid learning environments. Considerations forfurthering the authors’ line of inquiry into constraint-based modeling instruction areaddressed as well. 

Barnes, S., & Wiebe, E. N., & Branoff, T. J. (2011, June), The Effects of Worked Examples on CAD Performance: An Application of the Four-Component Instructional Design Model to CAD Instruction Paper presented at 2011 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, Vancouver, BC. 10.18260/1-2--18590

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