June 14, 2015
June 14, 2015
June 17, 2015
Engineering Design Graphics
26.1708.1 - 26.1708.23
A GRAPHICAL INTELLIGENT SYSTEM FOR EDUCATION ABOUT THE CONSTRUCTION OF CHINA’S TEMPLESIn Chinese culture, temples hold a high degree of importance, and its construction is both unique andunderrated in Western opinion. The intent of this paper is to design a program that can be used toeducate students about the construction processes of these temples. This type of structure is primarilyconstructed piecewise, meaning that individual components are fashioned and assembled, and theassemblies are in turn combined to form a much larger assembly which serves as the building structure.In particular, emphasis will be placed upon the dougong, which is a principal component of roofingconstruction and engineering. Its name translates to a ‘cap and block’ bracket system, in which invertedcaps (dou) are securely matched with blocks and beams (gong) without the use of fasteners such asnails and glue. In essence, a dougong configuration is constructed to support an overhang on top of it.The earliest written documents of dougong systems were found in the Chinese building standard calledYingzao Fashi that was first introduced in AD 1103 during the Song Dynasty and in the Qing DynastyGongcheng Zuofa construction manual in AD 1734. The wealth of information presented by thesespecifications has yet to be presented and distributed to the Western public, however, and the amountof data in the original texts may seem overwhelming to a general reader. The idea of the simulation isto educate students about dougong-based structures in a comprehensive and understandable manner,enabling students to assemble such structures themselves.A knowledge-based intelligent system that includes graphical simulation of dougong construction willbe used to present the construction process. Students can select various criteria for both the foundationand the superstructure, and can view a clear, complete reconstruction. Once these selections arecompleted, the system will furnish clients with various conclusions, in both textual and graphicalformat, related to each stage of the construction process. The concerned criteria include groundelevation and/or consistency, site and material selection, and structural complexity based on buildingsize, level number, and contemporary technical expertise. The knowledge base of the intelligent systemconsists of the graphical data obtained from existing structures, particularly those based on the dougongstyle of construction, along with dimensional values and hierarchical positions of components used inthe graphical representation for both the substructure and the superstructure based on Song and QingDynasty specifications. The data from the knowledge base is used along with the inference engine tocalculate the dimensions, constraints, and component relationships within the component hierarchy. Inaddition, the intelligent system can also be used to create a physical scale model using 3-D printers,which could enhance the learning process by allowing students to assemble the components manually.With this in mind, the intelligent system (and a physical model if possible) will be tested against arange of audiences to verify the efficacy and clarity of the presented information. In this way, theprogram is expected to be used effectively as an educational tool for the construction of Chinesetemples.Figure 1: The user interface for the Intelligent Dougong System (Song-dynasty dougong). Figure 2: An assembly of a digital temple model using Qing-Dynasty dougong. Figure 3: A close-up of the Qing-Dynasty dougong assembly.
Tan, A. H., & Hao, S., & Li, J., & Zhao, L., & Tan, F. H. (2015, June), Visual Modeling of Chinese Temple Construction for Student Education Paper presented at 2015 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, Seattle, Washington. 10.18260/p.25044
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