Asee peer logo

Design and Efficiency Analysis of a Hybrid Fuel Cell and Battery System

Download Paper |


2022 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition


Minneapolis, MN

Publication Date

August 23, 2022

Start Date

June 26, 2022

End Date

June 29, 2022

Conference Session

Engineering Physics and Physics Division Technical Session 1

Page Count




Permanent URL

Download Count


Request a correction

Paper Authors


Tooran Emami United States Coast Guard Academy

visit author page

Tooran Emami is a tenured associate professor of Electrical Engineering in the Electrical Engineering Program at the U. S. Coast Guard Academy. Her research interests are in control systems, particularly Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller design, robust control, time delay, compensator design for continuous-time and discrete-time systems, analog or digital filter design, and hybrid fuel cell system design.

visit author page

author page

Magdalena Perez United States Coast Guard Academy

author page

Philip Rogers

author page

John Buchert United States Coast Guard Academy

author page

Daniel Sullivan United States Coast Guard Academy

Download Paper |


This paper presents the design of a hybrid hydrogen fuel cell and battery sources to power a commercial electric scooter system. A team of four undergraduate electrical engineering students from the United States Coast Guard Academy undertaking this project aims to design a high-efficiency hybrid power management system (PMS) for a hydrogen fuel cell and a battery. The battery is an AA pack battery, while the hydrogen fuel cell has a flow rate of 0.4 – 0.6 bar. The logic of the PMS is self-contained and automatic, utilizing the output variables measured by sensors to switch between the two sources for the optimal system design. The state machine controller takes three inputs from the user's demanded speed, braking, and the battery's state of charge- to logically determine the status of the fuel cell, battery, and engine. The controller completes this via two central states and multiple substates to dictate how the motor and power sources respond to varying situations. The states include stages like braking, acceleration, and cruise, switching the system components on or off accordingly. The state machine model is implemented in the hardware through Arduino coding.

This paper covers the first part of a two-stage project. This first section revolves around simulation and design for the PMS. During this phase, the PMS is broken up into three main subsystems: the battery with the load, the fuel source with the load, and the proposed hybrid combination of the fuel cell and battery connected to the load. Each simulation of the subsystems exposes their strengths and weaknesses while also illustrating the design to combine their components. The project's next stage will continue to create, modify, and evaluate a full-scale hybrid scooter system.

Emami, T., & Perez, M., & Rogers, P., & Buchert, J., & Sullivan, D. (2022, August), Design and Efficiency Analysis of a Hybrid Fuel Cell and Battery System Paper presented at 2022 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, Minneapolis, MN. 10.18260/1-2--40593

ASEE holds the copyright on this document. It may be read by the public free of charge. Authors may archive their work on personal websites or in institutional repositories with the following citation: © 2022 American Society for Engineering Education. Other scholars may excerpt or quote from these materials with the same citation. When excerpting or quoting from Conference Proceedings, authors should, in addition to noting the ASEE copyright, list all the original authors and their institutions and name the host city of the conference. - Last updated April 1, 2015