Asee peer logo

Effectiveness of Scaffolding in Simulated IT Training and Education

Download Paper |


2015 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition


Seattle, Washington

Publication Date

June 14, 2015

Start Date

June 14, 2015

End Date

June 17, 2015





Conference Session

Utilizing Digital Technologies in Classroom and Distance Learning in ET Programs

Tagged Division

Engineering Technology

Tagged Topic


Page Count


Page Numbers

26.581.1 - 26.581.21



Permanent URL

Download Count


Request a correction

Paper Authors


Usman Ghani DeVry University, Addison, Illinois

visit author page

Usman Ghani
Senior Professor
DeVry University, College of Engineering and Information Science

Usman Ghani is a senior professor of Network and Communication Management in the College of Engineering and Information Science at DeVry University, Addison, Illinois. Professor Ghani’s area of specialization is ‘Network Infrastructure and Security’. Mr. Ghani began his career as an Electronics Engineer for Johnson Controls, Inc. in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, developing machine code for high end industrial controllers. Later he joined Illinois Technical College, Chicago, IL where he developed and taught courses in the various domains of computer communications. Dr. Ghani joined DeVry University as an assistant professor to teach engineering technology related courses but his interest in computer networking compelled him to get trained and obtained many industry certifications including CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate), CCNA-Security, MCP (Microsoft Certified Professional) and VCP (VMWare Certified Professional); he is also a Cisco Certified Academy Instructor (CCAI). To bring real world experience into his classroom, Professor Ghani frequently gets involved in various professional IT consulting assignments as well.

Dr. Ghani holds MSEE from Illinois Institute of Technology, MBA from Keller Graduate School of Management and Doctorate from Northern Illinois University.

visit author page


Ahmed S. Khan DeVry University, Addison Orcid 16x16

visit author page

Dr. Ahmed S. Khan is a Senior Professor in the College of Engineering and Information Sciences at DeVry University, Addison, Illinois. Dr. Khan has more than thirty-two years of experience in research, instruction, curricula design and development, program evaluation and accreditation, management and supervision.

Dr. Khan received an MSEE from Michigan Technological University, an MBA from Keller Graduate School of Management, and his Ph.D. from Colorado State University. His research interests are in the areas of Nanotechnology, Fiber Optic Communications, Faculty Development, and Social and Ethical Implications of Technology. He is the author of many educational papers and presentations. He has authored/coauthored the following books:

• Nanotechnology: Ethical and Social Implications (2012)
• Technology and Society: Issues for the 21st Century and Beyond 3E, (2008)
• The Telecommunications Fact Book and Illustrated Dictionary 2E (2006)
• Fiber Optic Communication: An Applied Approach, Prentice Hall, N.J. (2002)
• Technology and Society: A Bridge to the 21st Century (2002)
• Technology and Society: Crossroads to the 21st Century (1996)
• Technology and Society: A Spectrum of Issues for the 21st Century (1994)
• The Telecommunications Fact Book and Illustrated Dictionary (1992)

Dr. Khan is a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE), and a member of American Society of Engineering Education (ASEE), and has been listed in Who’s Who among America’s Teachers. Dr. Khan also serves as a program evaluator for the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET).

visit author page

Download Paper |


Effectiveness of Feedback on Students’ Learning in Simulation-based IT Education and Training ABSTRACTFeedback is a vital element for improving student learning in simulation-based education andtraining as it guides and refines learning through scaffolding. A number of studies in literaturehave shown that students’ learning is enhanced when feedback is provided with personalizedtutoring that offers specific guidance and adapts feedback to the learner in a one-to-oneenvironment. Thus, emulating these adaptive aspects of human tutoring in simulation provides aneffective methodology to train individuals.This paper presents the results of a study that investigated the effectiveness of automatingdifferent types of feedback techniques such as Knowledge-of-Correct-Response (KCR) andAnswer-Until-Correct (AUC) in software simulation for learning basic information technologyconcepts. For the purpose of comparison, techniques like simulation with zero or no-feedback(NFB) and traditional hands-on (HON) learning environments are also examined.The paper presents the summary of findings based on quantitative analyses which reveal that thesimulation based instructional strategies are at least as effective as hands-on teachingmethodologies for the purpose of learning of IT concepts. The paper also compares the results ofthe study with the earlier studies and recommends strategies for using feedback mechanism toimprove students’ learning in designing and simulation-based IT training.

Ghani, U., & Khan, A. S. (2015, June), Effectiveness of Scaffolding in Simulated IT Training and Education Paper presented at 2015 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, Seattle, Washington. 10.18260/p.23919

ASEE holds the copyright on this document. It may be read by the public free of charge. Authors may archive their work on personal websites or in institutional repositories with the following citation: © 2015 American Society for Engineering Education. Other scholars may excerpt or quote from these materials with the same citation. When excerpting or quoting from Conference Proceedings, authors should, in addition to noting the ASEE copyright, list all the original authors and their institutions and name the host city of the conference. - Last updated April 1, 2015