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Fundamental: Examining the Variations in the TPACK Framework for Teaching Robotics-aided STEM Lessons of Varying Difficulty

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Conference

2018 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition

Location

Salt Lake City, Utah

Publication Date

June 23, 2018

Start Date

June 23, 2018

End Date

July 27, 2018

Conference Session

Robotics

Tagged Division

Pre-College Engineering Education

Page Count

23

Permanent URL

https://peer.asee.org/30550

Download Count

55

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Paper Authors

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Abhidipta Mallik New York University

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Abhidipta Mallik received his B.Tech. degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from the West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata, India, and M.Tech. degree in Mechatronics from the Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, West Bengal, India. He has one year and ten months of research experience at the CSIR-CMERI, India. He is currently a Ph.D. student in Mechanical Engineering at NYU Tandon School of Engineering, Brooklyn, NY, where he is serving as a research assistant under an NSF-funded ITEST project.

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S.M. Mizanoor Rahman New York University

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Mizanoor Rahman received Ph.D. degree in Mechanical Engineering from Mie University at Tsu, Japan. He then worked as a research fellow at the National University of Singapore (NUS), a researcher at Vrije University of Brussels (Belgium) and a postdoctoral associate at Clemson University, USA. He is currently working as a postdoctoral associate at the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Tandon School of Engineering, New York University (NYU), NY, USA. His research and teaching interests include robotics, mechatronics, control systems, electro-mechanical design, human factors/ergonomics, engineering psychology, virtual reality, artificial intelligence, computer vision, biomimetics and biomechanics with applications to industrial manipulation and manufacturing, healthcare and rehabilitation, social services, unmanned autonomous vehicle (aerial and ground, indoor and outdoor) systems and STEM education.

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Sheila Borges Rajguru New York University

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Dr. Sheila Borges Rajguru is the Assistant Director at the Center for K12 STEM Education, NYU Tandon School of Engineering. As the Center's STEM Educator and Researcher she works with engineers and faculty to provide professional development to K12 science and math teachers. In addition, she conducts studies that looks at embedding robotics and technology in K12 schools. As a former Adjunct Professor at Teachers College, Columbia University and biomedical scientist in Immunology, Dr. Borges balances the world of what STEM professionals do and brings that to STEM education in order to provide PD that aligns to The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Since 2008 she has provided teacher PD to science teachers in the tri-state area, including international visiting teachers and scholars. Dr. Borges’ research interests include: building STEM professional-teacher relationships, diversity and equity, and enhancing urban science teaching and learning.

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Vikram Kapila New York University Orcid 16x16 orcid.org/0000-0001-5994-256X

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Vikram Kapila is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at NYU Tandon School of Engineering (NYU Tandon), where he directs a Mechatronics, Controls, and Robotics Laboratory, a Research Experience for Teachers Site in Mechatronics and Entrepreneurship, a DR K-12 research project, and an ITEST research project, all funded by NSF. He has held visiting positions with the Air Force Research Laboratories in Dayton, OH. His research interests include K-12 STEM education, mechatronics, robotics, and control system technology. Under a Research Experience for Teachers Site, a DR K-12 project, and GK-12 Fellows programs, funded by NSF, and the Central Brooklyn STEM Initiative (CBSI), funded by six philanthropic foundations, he has conducted significant K-12 education, training, mentoring, and outreach activities to integrate engineering concepts in science classrooms and labs of dozens of New York City public schools. He received NYU Tandon’s 2002, 2008, 2011, and 2014 Jacobs Excellence in Education Award, 2002 Jacobs Innovation Grant, 2003 Distinguished Teacher Award, and 2012 Inaugural Distinguished Award for Excellence in the category Inspiration through Leadership. Moreover, he is a recipient of 2014-2015 University Distinguished Teaching Award at NYU. His scholarly activities have included 3 edited books, 9 chapters in edited books, 1 book review, 61 journal articles, and 140 conference papers. He has mentored 1 B.S., 26 M.S., and 5 Ph.D. thesis students; 47 undergraduate research students and 11 undergraduate senior design project teams; over 480 K-12 teachers and 115 high school student researchers; and 18 undergraduate GK-12 Fellows and 59 graduate GK-12 Fellows. Moreover, he directs K-12 education, training, mentoring, and outreach programs that enrich the STEM education of over 1,000 students annually.

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Abstract

As education practitioners increasingly rely on the use of educational technologies to engage students in STEM learning, education researchers have suggested a conceptual framework to examine and promote practitioners’ technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK). The concept of TPACK enables educators to apply technology as an effective educational tool to create active learning environments wherein pedagogically challenging disciplinary content may be rendered easily accessible to learners. With the accelerating adoption of robotics in K-12 STEM learning, there is a need to examine robotics-based STEM teaching and learning using the lens of TPACK. However, prior TPACK research has been quite general and has limitations in particular situations (e.g., with regards to the development of individual teachers or individual lessons).

Teachers are expected to deliver robotics-aided STEM education to their students for many years. Some individual teachers may find it challenging to engage in robotics-aided STEM education due to their lack of required TPACK. Moreover, all robotics-aided STEM lessons are not the same, i.e., their difficulty levels may vary due to variations in the required TPACK. Thus, it is important to concentrate on investigating the TPACK framework for individual teacher and individual lesson, since a well-designed and focused TPACK examination can allow individual teachers to continually improve themselves as well as effectively prepare for and deliver specific lessons. This paper focuses on exploring the TPACK framework for two individual teachers, teaching robotics-aided science and math lessons with varying level of difficulty.

For this paper, we focus on two teachers who, following a summer professional development program, taught three lessons to 22 students of one class at one school. We divided the students in the class into two groups, each handled by one teacher. To explore the impact of robotics-aided education on student learning, we divided the students in each teachers’ group into two groups. Each teacher taught the three lessons to one group with the use of robotics and to the other group without using robotics. We brainstormed with teachers and categorized the selected math and science lessons into three categories based on their difficulty levels: i) easy, ii) difficult, and iii) very difficult. Using questionnaires, we identified the ideal requirements (prerequisites) of teachers’ TPACK domains to effectively teach the selected lessons using robotics. We also determined the relative importance of the various domains of TPACK for each lesson. We conducted a survey to assess the TPACK self-efficacy levels of the teachers for the robotics-aided lessons. We examined the performance of students using a content quiz based on the lessons. Finally, we investigated whether there is any correlation of TPACK self-efficacy levels of teachers with i) difficulty levels of the lessons and ii) student learning outcomes. A complete description of the lessons, research methodology, and analysis of results will be presented in the final paper.

Mallik, A., & Rahman, S. M., & Borges Rajguru, S., & Kapila, V. (2018, June), Fundamental: Examining the Variations in the TPACK Framework for Teaching Robotics-aided STEM Lessons of Varying Difficulty Paper presented at 2018 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition , Salt Lake City, Utah. https://peer.asee.org/30550

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