Salt Lake City, Utah
June 23, 2018
June 23, 2018
July 27, 2018
Pre-College Engineering Education
As education practitioners increasingly rely on the use of educational technologies to engage students in STEM learning, education researchers have suggested a conceptual framework to examine and promote practitioners’ technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK). The concept of TPACK enables educators to apply technology as an effective educational tool to create active learning environments wherein pedagogically challenging disciplinary content may be rendered easily accessible to learners. With the accelerating adoption of robotics in K-12 STEM learning, there is a need to examine robotics-based STEM teaching and learning using the lens of TPACK. However, prior TPACK research has been quite general and has limitations in particular situations (e.g., with regards to the development of individual teachers or individual lessons).
Teachers are expected to deliver robotics-aided STEM education to their students for many years. Some individual teachers may find it challenging to engage in robotics-aided STEM education due to their lack of required TPACK. Moreover, all robotics-aided STEM lessons are not the same, i.e., their difficulty levels may vary due to variations in the required TPACK. Thus, it is important to concentrate on investigating the TPACK framework for individual teacher and individual lesson, since a well-designed and focused TPACK examination can allow individual teachers to continually improve themselves as well as effectively prepare for and deliver specific lessons. This paper focuses on exploring the TPACK framework for two individual teachers, teaching robotics-aided science and math lessons with varying level of difficulty.
For this paper, we focus on two teachers who, following a summer professional development program, taught three lessons to 22 students of one class at one school. We divided the students in the class into two groups, each handled by one teacher. To explore the impact of robotics-aided education on student learning, we divided the students in each teachers’ group into two groups. Each teacher taught the three lessons to one group with the use of robotics and to the other group without using robotics. We brainstormed with teachers and categorized the selected math and science lessons into three categories based on their difficulty levels: i) easy, ii) difficult, and iii) very difficult. Using questionnaires, we identified the ideal requirements (prerequisites) of teachers’ TPACK domains to effectively teach the selected lessons using robotics. We also determined the relative importance of the various domains of TPACK for each lesson. We conducted a survey to assess the TPACK self-efficacy levels of the teachers for the robotics-aided lessons. We examined the performance of students using a content quiz based on the lessons. Finally, we investigated whether there is any correlation of TPACK self-efficacy levels of teachers with i) difficulty levels of the lessons and ii) student learning outcomes. A complete description of the lessons, research methodology, and analysis of results will be presented in the final paper.
Mallik, A., & Rahman, S. M., & Borges Rajguru, S., & Kapila, V. (2018, June), Fundamental: Examining the Variations in the TPACK Framework for Teaching Robotics-aided STEM Lessons of Varying Difficulty Paper presented at 2018 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition , Salt Lake City, Utah. 10.18260/1-2--30550
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