June 15, 2019
June 15, 2019
June 19, 2019
Engineering Design Graphics
The pedagogical approach of Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is based on the belief that effective learning occurs when students are challenged just beyond the level they can do on their own. An expert teacher looking over the shoulder of a student would give just the right amount of hints; too much hinting gives away the solution which deprives the student of the productive struggle that is needed for learning new concepts. Alternatively, no hinting may leave the student frustrated to the point where they give up. A key challenge with online learning is how to provide the right level of hints as if an expert teacher were there. This paper describes the evolution of hints for spatial visualization training using a mobile app. Students sketch orthographic and isometric sketches, which are automatically graded by the app. When a student draws an assignment incorrectly, they are provided with the option of a hint or peeking at the solution. This paper discusses the development of the app feedback and how it has impacted student behavior in using the app. In a first implementation, some students who excessively peeked at the solution without trying very hard on the assignments, did not significantly improve their spatial visualization ability as measured by the standardized PSVT:R test. To address the over-use of peeking, gamification was added that rewarded students to try on their own before looking at a hint or peek. In this paper, we look at a classroom trial that used a version of the spatial visualization mobile app with gamification. In general, gamification increased the post PSVT:r test scores. However, there was also a partial negative effect that and we see instances where the gamification lead to student frustration and waste of time because they avoided using hints to maximize their gamification points. We realized that the encomposing the knowledge of an expert teacher in providing hints just when needed, is difficult to implement in an algorithm. Specific examples are presented along with proposed improvements to the in-app hints. The final paper will include data comparing results of a class in January 2018 that used the original hints, with a class in January 2019 that will use the newer hints.
Delson, N., & Van Den Einde, L., & Cowan, E. R., & Mihelich, B. (2019, June), Mini-Hints for Improved Spatial Visualization Training Paper presented at 2019 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition , Tampa, Florida. 10.18260/1-2--33112
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